Timeline of World History TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

TIMELINE OF WORLD HISTORY
 

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1600 - 1699

 
1600-09 1610-19 1620-29 1630-39 1640-49 1650-59 1660-69 1670-79 1680-89 1690-99  
1600 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 1660 1670 1680 1690  
1601 1611 1621 1631 1641 1651 1661 1671 1681 1691  
1602 1612 1622 1632 1642 1652 1662 1672 1682 1692  
1603 1613 1623 1633 1643 1653 1663 1673 1683 1693  
1604 1614 1624 1634 1644 1654 1664 1674 1684 1694  
1605 1615 1625 1635 1645 1655 1665 1675 1685 1695  
1606 1616 1626 1636 1646 1656 1666 1676 1686 1696  
1607 1617 1627 1637 1647 1657 1667 1677 1687 1697  
1608 1618 1628 1638 1648 1658 1668 1678 1688 1698  
1609 1619 1629 1639 1649 1659 1669 1679 1689 1699  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1658 Part III NEXT-1659 Part II    
 
 
     
1650 - 1659
YEAR BY YEAR:
1650 - 1659
History at a Glance
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1650 Part I
Second Fronde
Graham James
Churchill John
Jennings Sarah
Baxter Richard
Hale Matthew
Menage Gilles
Noh theatre
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1650 Part II
Murillo: "The Holy Family with the Little Bird"
Poussin: "Self-Portrait"
Athanasius Kircher: "Musurgia universalis"
Overture
Joseph Haydn - Der Winter, Overture
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1650 Part III
Scheiner Christoph
Extermination of North American Indian
Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1651 Part I
Battle of Worcester
Navigation Act
Thomas Hobbes: "Leviathan"
William Davenant: "Gondibert"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1651 Part II
Teniers: "The Art Collection of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm"
Leopold Wilhelm
Sansetsu Kano
Kano Sansetsu
French ballet
Jean-Baptiste Lully - Ballet des Arts
Beauchamp Pierre
Cape of Good Hope
Bibliotheque Mazarine
Riccioli Giovanni
Nell Gwyn
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1652 Part I
First Anglo-Dutch War
Battle of Dungeness
Tromp Maarten
Blake Robert
Provisional Fronde
Nikon
Guez de Balzac Jean-Louis
Hayashi Gaho
Winstanley Gerrard
Corneille: "Nicomede"
Otway Thomas
Tate Nahum
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1652 Part II
Bernini: "Ecstasy of St. Teresa"
Minuet
Baroque Dance - Menuet
German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
Air pressure and the vacuum
Weston Richard
Byrd William
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1653 Part I
Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans
Leuenberger Niklaus
Swiss peasant war
Battle of Scheveningen
Chetham's Library
Chetham Humphrey
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1653 Part II
Francesco Borromini: S. Agnese in Agone
Jacob van Ruisdael: "Schloss Bentheim"
Jan van Goyen: "A Beach with Fishing Boats"
Gentileschi Artemisia
Artemisia Gentileschi
Taj Mahal
Corelli Arcangelo
Arcangelo Corelli - La Follia
Arcangelo Corelli
Locke Matthew
Matthew Locke -"Cupid and Death" - Ouverture
Matthew Locke
Pachelbel Johann
Pachelbel - Canon
Johann Pachelbel
Schultes Johann
Izaak Walton: "The Compleat Angler"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1654 Part I
Treaty of Westminster
Lambert John
Beverningh Hieronymus
Treaty Between Great Britain and Sweden
Charles X Gustav
First Protectorate Parliament
Russo-Polish War
Dutch-Portuguese War over Brazil
Comenius:"Orbis sensualium pictus"
John Milton: "Defensio secunda"
Moreto Agustin
George Chapman: Revenge for Honour"
John Webster:"Appius and Virginia"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1654 Part II
Pieter de Hooch: "Soldiers and a Serving Woman "
Terborch: "Paternal Admonition"
Algardi Alessandro
Alessandro Algardi
Bernoulli Jakob
Probability theory
Fee tail
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1655 Part I
Jamaica
First Northern War
Borel Pierre
Thomas Hobbes: "Elementorum philosophiae"
Stanley Thomas
Thomasius Christian
James Shirley: "The Gentleman of Venice"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1655 Part II
Jordaens: "The Bean King"
Rembrandt: "Woman Bathing in a Stream"
Bartholin Caspar
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1656 Part I
Treaty of Konigsberg
Treaty of Marienburg
Second Protectorate Parliament
Colombo
Alfonso VI of Portugal
Koprulu Mehmed Pasha
Manasseh ben Israel
Blaise Pascal: "Lettres provinciales"
Ussher James
Ussher chronology
Harrington James
James Harrington: "The Commonwealth of Oceana"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1656 Part II
Chapelain Jean
John Ford:"The Sun's Darling"
Bernini: Piazza of St. Peter's, Rome
Velazquez: "Las Meninas"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1656 Part III
Vermeer: "The Procuress"
Fischer von Erlach Johann Bernhard
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Soldani-Benzi Massimiliano
Massimiliano Soldani-Benzi
Marais Marin
Marin Marais - Suite in C minor
Marin Marais
Halley Edmund
Wharton Thomas
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1657 Part I
Leopold I
House of Lords
Frederick I of Prussia
Treaty of Bromberg
Fontenelle Bernard
Dennis John
Hedelin Francois
Silesius Angelus
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1657 Part II
Rembrandt: "Portrait of his son Titus"
Velazquez: "The Fable of Arachne"
Delalande Michel-Richard
Delalande - Super flumina Babylonis
Michel-Richard de Lalande
Viviani Vincenzo
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1658 Part I
Treaty of Roskilde
Battle of the Dunes
Battle of the Dunes
Dano-Swedish War
De Ruyter Michiel Adriaanszoon
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1658 Part II
Dugdale William
Phillips Edward
Society of Foreign Missions of Paris
John Dryden: "Heroic Stanzas"
Philip Massinger: "The City Madam"
William Rowley: "The Witch of Edmonton"
Stiernhielm Georg
Cleveland John
Vermeer: "The Milkmaid"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1658 Part III
Pieter de Hooch: Paintings from the Delft period
Kerll Johann Caspar
Kerll - Toccata IV
Johann Caspar von Kerll
Sylvius Franciscus
Browne Thomas
Palmstruch Johan
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1659 Part I
Stanley Charles
Treaty of the Pyrenees
Somner William
Day John
Moliere: "Les Precieuses ridicules"
 
YEAR BY YEAR:
1659 Part II
Vermeer: "A Lady and Two Gentlemen"
Purcell Henry
Henry Purcell - Abdelazar Suite
Henry Purcell
Radisson Pierre-Esprit
Menard Rene
Missionaries and Traders
Willis Thomas
Berlin State Library
 
 
 
 
 

Louis XIV and Philip IV meeting in the Pheasant Island on the Franco-Spanish border.
 
 
 
 
 HISTORY, RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, ART, LITERATURE, MUSIC, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, DAILY LIFE
 
 
 
 
YEAR BY YEAR:  1600 - 1699
 
 
 
1659 Part I
 
 
 
1659
 
 
Derby petition for permanent settlement of the constitutional crisis between army and Parliament
 
 
When Richard Cromwell was proclaimed protector (3 September 1658), his chief difficulty lay with the army, over which he exercised no effective control. John Lambert, though holding no military commission, was the most popular of the old Cromwellian generals with the rank and file of the army, and it was very generally believed that he would install himself in Oliver Cromwell's seat of power. Richard Cromwell's adherents tried to conciliate him, and the royalist leaders made overtures to him, even proposing that Charles II should marry Lambert's daughter. Lambert at first gave a lukewarm support to Richard Cromwell, and took no part in the intrigues of the officers at Fleetwood's residence, Wallingford House. He was a member of the Third Protectorate Parliament which met in January 1659, and when it was dissolved in April under compulsion of Fleetwood and Desborough, he was restored to his commands. He headed the deputation to Lenthall in May 1659 inviting the return of the Rump Parliament, which led to the tame retirement of Richard Cromwell; and he was appointed a member of the Committee of Safety and of the Council of State.   When the parliament, in an attempt to control the power of the army, withheld from Fleetwood the right of nominating officers, Lambert was named one of a council of seven charged with this duty. The parliament's evident distrust of the soldiers caused much discontent in the army; while the absence of authority encouraged the royalists to make overt attempts to restore Charles II, the most serious of which, under Sir George Booth and the Earl of Derby, was crushed by Lambert near Chester on 19 August 1659.

He promoted a petition from his army that Fleetwood might be made lord-general and himself major-general. The republican party in the House took offence. The Commons (12 October 1659) cashiered Lambert and other officers, and retained Fleetwood as chief of a military council under the authority of the speaker. On the next day Lambert caused the doors of the House to be shut and the members kept out. On 26 October a new Committee of Safety was appointed, of which he was a member. He was also appointed major-general of all the forces in England and Scotland, Fleetwood being general.
 
 
 
Stanley Charles
 

Charles Stanley, 8th Earl of Derby (19 January 1628 – 21 December 1672), an English nobleman, was the only son of James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby and Charlotte de La Trémouille.

 

Charles Stanley, 8th Earl of Derby
  Life
As Lord Strange, he took little part in the English Civil War. In France at the time of his father's condemnment in 1651, he petitioned unsuccessfully for the latter's life. After succeeding to the Earldom, he lived quietly at Bidston Hall, Cheshire, emerging to support Booth's unsuccessful rising in 1659. Attainted for so doing, he was restored the following year and the family's lands in the Isle of Man were returned to him.
He served as mayor of Liverpool, between 1666 and 1667.

Family
He married Dorothea Helena Kirkhoven (died 1674), daughter of Jehan, Lord of Heenvliet and his wife, Katherine Stanhope (later Countess of Chesterfield), in 1650. Dorothea reportedly had an extramarital tryst with King Charles II of England which resulted in a child. Their son George, born 1658, was raised by the wife of a Gunner at Windsor named Swan. George assumed the surname Swan.
The brother of Swan's wife, Bartholomew Gibson, was the king's farrier in Edinburgh. It would further appear that Gibson obtained, on trust for George Swan from Charles II or his brother the Duke of York, a grant of land in New Jersey, where Gibson's son died about 1750, as would appear from a notice in the London Chronicle in 1771.
 
 
George Swan (1658–1730) was recognised by King Charles II as his son. When asked why he had not ennobled him, as he had his other illegitimate children, the king replied, "I did not dare to make a deuck (Scots for 'duck') of him, but I made a nobler bird". George Swan became a burgess in Glasgow in later life.
George Swan had, at least, two daughters, Hannah Swan (married name Robertson; 1724–1800, Edinburgh) and Elizabeth Swan (1726–1790). Elizabeth married William Mercer in 1746. Both are buried at Kinnoull, Perth, Scotland.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1659
 
 
Cromwell Richard resigns
 
 
 
1659
 
 
Treaty of the Pyrenees
 

The Treaty of the Pyrenees (Spanish: Tratado de los Pirineos, French: Traité des Pyrénées, Catalan: Tractat dels Pirineus) was signed to end the 1635 to 1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War. It was signed on Pheasant Island, a river island on the border between the two countries which has remained a French-Spanish condominium since the treaty. The kings Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain were represented by their chief ministers, Cardinal Mazarin and Don Luis de Haro, respectively.

 

Louis XIV and Philip IV meeting in the Pheasant Island on the Franco-Spanish border.
 
 
Context
France entered the Thirty Years' War after the Spanish Habsburg victories in the Dutch Revolt in the 1620s and at the Battle of Nördlingen against Sweden in 1634. By 1640 France began to interfere in Spanish politics, aiding the revolt in Catalonia, while Spain in response aided the Fronde revolt in France in 1648. During the negotiations for the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, France gained Alsace and Lorraine and cut off Spanish access to the Netherlands from Austria, leading to open warfare between the French and Spanish.
After over ten years of war, an Anglo-French alliance was victorious at the Battle of the Dunes in 1658 and peace was settled by means of this treaty in 1659.
 
 
Content
France gained Roussillon and Perpignan, Montmédy and other parts of Luxembourg, Artois and other towns in Flanders, including Arras, Béthune, Gravelines and Thionville, and a new border with Spain was fixed at the Pyrenees. However, the treaty stipulated only that all villages north of the Pyrenees should become part of France. For that reason there is an exclave of Spain in this part of France, the town of Llívia, considered a town and not a village, which remains under Spanish control and is part of the comarca of Baixa Cerdanya, the Spanish province of Girona. This border was not properly settled until the Treaty of Bayonne was signed in 1856. On the western Pyrenees too, a definite borderline was drawn and decisions made as to the politico-administrative affiliation of bordering areas—Baztan, Aldude, Valcarlos—on the Basque region.
Spain was forced to recognise and confirm all of the French gains at the Peace of Westphalia.
  In exchange for the Spanish territorial losses, the French king pledged to quit his support for Portugal and renounced to his claim to the county of Barcelona, which the French crown was claiming ever since the Catalan Revolt (also known as Reapers' War). The Portuguese revolt in 1640, led by the Duke of Braganza, was supported monetarily by Cardinal Richelieu of France. After the Catalonian Revolt, France had controlled Catalonia from January 1641, when a combined Catalan and French force defeated the Spanish army at Montjuich, until 1652.

The treaty also arranged for a marriage between Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain, the daughter of Philip IV of Spain. Maria Theresa was forced to renounce her claim to the Spanish throne, in return for a monetary settlement as part of her dowry. This settlement was never paid, a factor that eventually led to the War of Devolution in 1668.
In addition, the English received Dunkirk.
 
 

The geopolitical effects of the Treaty of Pyrenees (1659)
 
 
Consequences
The Treaty of the Pyrenees is the last major diplomatic achievement by Cardinal Mazarin. Combined with the Peace of Westphalia, it allowed Louis XIV remarkable stability and diplomatic advantage by means of a weakened Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé and a weakened Spanish Crown, along the agreed dowry, which was an important element in the French king's strategy:
All in all, in 1660, when the Swedish occupation of Poland finished, most of the European continent was at peace (Portuguese Restoration War, third stage), and the Bourbons had prevailed over the Habsburgs. In the Pyrenees, the treaty resulted in the establishment of border customs and restriction of free cross-border flow of people and goods.
 
 
French annexations

In the context of the territorial changes involved in the Treaty, France got some territorial gains, on both its northern and southern borders.

- In the north, France gained French Flanders.

- In the south:

1. On the east: The northern part of Historical Catalonia, including Roussillon, Conflent, Vallespir, Capcir, and French Cerdagne, were transferred to France, i.e. what later came to be known as "Northern Catalonia".

2. On the west: The parties agree to put together a field group to compromise a borderline on disputed lands along the Basque Pyrenees, involving Sareta—Zugarramurdi, Ainhoa, etc.— Aldude, and the Spanish wedge of Valcarlos.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Map of Catalonia, showing the partition of its territory by means of the Treaty of the Pyrenees.
 
 
 
1659
 
 
The Frederick William, the Great Elector drives Swedes out of Prussia
 
 

Frederick William, the Great Elector by Frans Luycx
 
 
 
1659
 
 
More Henry: "The Immortality of the Soul"
 
 

Henry More
 
 
 
1659
 
 
William Somner: "Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum"
 
 
Somner William
 
William Somner (1598–1669) was an English antiquarian scholar, the author of the first dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon language.
 

William Somner
  Life
He was baptised in the church of St. Margaret, Canterbury, on 5 November 1598, but according to a statement of his widow and surviving relatives, the date of his birth was 30 March 1606. His father held the office of registrary of the court of Canterbury, under Sir Nathaniel Brent, commissary. After passing through the free school at Canterbury, he became clerk to his father, and Archbishop William Laud soon advanced him to be registrar of the ecclesiastical courts of the diocese. The archbishop demanded of him a yearly report on the conduct of the clergy in the diocese, but this Somner failed to supply. Somner devoted his leisure to studying law and antiquities, and shooting with the long bow.
A royalist, after the execution of Charles I he wrote an elegy; subsequently he published another such poem, to which was prefixed the portrait of Charles I, from the Eikon Basilike. He was imprisoned for some time in Deal Castle for endeavouring to obtain subscriptions to a petition for a free parliament in 1659. At the Restoration he was preferred to the mastership of St. John's Hospital in the suburbs of Canterbury, and he was appointed auditor of Christ Church, Canterbury, by the dean and chapter. He died on 30 March 1669, and was buried in the church of St. Margaret, Canterbury. He was three times married, and left several children.
Somner acquired great reputation as an antiquary, and he numbered among his friends and correspondents Archbishops Laud and James Ussher, Robert Cotton, William Dugdale, Roger Dodsworth, Symonds D'Ewes, Edward Bysshe, Thomas Fuller, and Elias Ashmole.

The Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum
In 1657 John Spelman, at the suggestion of Archbishop Ussher, bestowed on Somner the annual stipend of the Anglo-Saxon lecture founded by his father, Sir Henry Spelman, at Cambridge. This enabled him to complete his principal work, the Dictionarium. It shortly became a standard work in the teaching at the University of Oxford.
 
 
Other works
Somner's earliest work was The Antiquities of Canterbury; or a Survey of that ancient Citie, with the Suburbs and Cathedral, London, 1640, dedicated to Archbishop Laud (reissued 1662; 2nd edit, by Nicholas Batteley, London, 1703). At the suggestion of Meric Casaubon he acquired a knowledge of Anglo-Saxon, and then wrote Observations on the Laws of King Henry I, published by Roger Twysden in 1644, with a new glossary. He made collections for a history of Kent, but abandoned this undertaking; a portion of the work was published at Oxford in 1693 by the Rev. James Brome, under the title of A Treatise of the Roman Ports and Forts in Kent, with notes by Edmund Gibson, and a life of the author by White Kennett.
Somner completed in 1647 a work on gavelkind. He also made, but never published, an English translation of The Ancient Saxon Laws, which had been published in Latin by William Lambard in 1568. He composed, in reply to Jean Jacques Chifflet, a dissertation on Portus Iccius, the place where Julius Caesar embarked in his expeditions to Britain, and fixed it at Gessoriacum, now Boulogne-sur-Mer. Somner also drew up Ad verba vetera Germanica à V. Cl. Justo Lipsio Epist. Cent. iii. ad Belgas Epist. XLIV collecta, Notae, published in the appendix to Meric Casaubon's 'De quatuor Linguis Commentatio,'1650. To the Historiae Anglicanae Scriptores Decem, edited in 1652 by Roger Twysden, he contributed a glossary of obscure and antiquated words.
To William Dugdale and Roger Dodsworth's Monasticon Anglicanum he contributed materials relating to Canterbury and the religious houses in Kent, and he translated into Latin all the Anglo-Saxon documents, and many English records for the same work. His last antiquarian production was Chartham News; or a brief relation of some Strange Bones there lately digged up, in some grounds of Mr. John Somner's. This was edited by his brother John, London, 1680, and is reprinted at the end of the first part of the second edition of his Antiquities of Canterbury.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1659
 
 
Corneille Pierre: "Oedipe," tragedy
 
 
 
     
 
Pierre Corneille


"The Cid"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1659
 
 
John Day: "The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green," drama
 
 
Day John
 

John Day (1574 – 1638?) was an English dramatist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods.

 
Life
He was born at Cawston, Norfolk, and educated at Ely. He became a sizar of Caius College, Cambridge, in 1592, but was expelled in the next year for stealing a book. He became one of Philip Henslowe's playwrights, collaborating with Henry Chettle, William Haughton, Thomas Dekker, Richard Hathwaye and Wentworth Smith. There are 22 plays to which he is linked.

However his almost incessant activity does not seem to have paid, to judge by the small loans, of five shillings and even two shillings, that he obtained from Henslowe. Little is known of his life beyond these small details, and disparaging references by Ben Jonson in 1618/19, describing him, (with Dekker and Edward Sharpham) as a “rogue” and (with Thomas Middleton and Gervase Markham) as a “base fellow”.

It may be indicative of his abilities that of all the writers who did a substantial amount of work for Henslowe’s companies Day is one of only two not mentioned and praised by Francis Meres in his lists of the “the best” writers in 1598. In Peregrinatio Scholastica, or Learning's Pilgrimage, a collection of 22 morall Tractes written towards the end of his life, but not published until 1881, he laments that “notwithstanding . . . Industry . . . he was forct to take a napp at Beggars Bushe”, and elsewhere he refers to “being becalmde in a fogg of necessity” having been passed over by “Credit” and “Opinion”. It seems likely that he was the “John Daye, yeoman” who killed fellow dramatist Henry Porter in Southwark 1599.
If so it does not seem have to interrupted his career; he continued to collaborate with writers such as Henry Chettle, who had written with Porter.
  Works
The first play in which Day appears as part-author is The Conquest of Brute, with the finding of the Bath (1598), which, with most of his early work, is lost. Day's earliest extant work, written in collaboration with Chettle, is The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green (acted 1600, printed 1659), a drama dealing with the early years of the reign of Henry VI. It bore the sub-title of The Merry Humor of Tom Strowd, the Norfolk Yeoman, and was so popular that second and third parts, by Day and Haughton, were produced in the next year. The Isle of Gulls (printed 1606), a prose comedy founded upon Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia, contains in its light dialogue much satire to which the key is now lost, but Algernon Charles Swinburne notes in Manasses's burlesque of a Puritan sermon is a curious anticipation of the eloquence of Mr. Chadband in Bleak House. In 1607 Day produced, in conjunction with William Rowley and George Wilkins, The Travels of the Three English Brothers, which detailed the adventures of Sir Thomas, Sir Anthony and Robert Shirley. This play is a dramatic romance of a type that hearkened back to the early decades of the public stage in London. In 1608 Day published two comedies, Law Tricks, or Who Would have Thought it? and Humour out of Breath.
The Parliament of Bees is the work on which Day's reputation chiefly rests. The piece contains much for which parallel passages are found in Thomas Dekker's Wonder of a Kingdom (1636) and The Noble Spanish Soldier (printed 1634). The passages which echo The Noble Spanish Soldier include references to speaking Spanish which are only meaningful in the context of Dekker's play; this suggests that the Dekker play is the original, a possibility reinforced by the consideration that there is no earlier known edition of The Parliament of Bees than 1641.
 
 
The six dramas by Day which we possess show a delicate fancy and dainty inventiveness all his own. He preserved, in a great measure, the dramatic tradition of John Lyly, and affected a kind of subdued euphuism. Without ever wholly abandoning these characteristics, Day's comedy also reveals some influence of early Jacobean satirists such as John Marston, who like Day wrote for the children's companies. The Maid's Metamorphosis (1600), once supposed to be a posthumous work of Lyly's, may be an early work of Day's. It possesses, at all events, many of his marked characteristics. His prose Peregrinatio Scholastica or Learninges Pilgrimage, dating from his later years, was printed by A. H. Bullen from a manuscript of Day's. Considerations partly based on this work have suggested that he had a share in the anonymous The Pilgrimage to Parnassus and the Return from Parnassus. The beauty and ingenuity of The Parliament of Bees were noted and warmly extolled by Charles Lamb; and Day's work has since found many admirers. The date of his death is unknown, but an elegy on him by John Tatham, the city poet, was published in 1640.
 
 
Publication
His works, edited by Bullen, were printed at the Chiswick Press in 1881. The same editor included The Maid's Metamorphosis in Vol. 1 of his Collection of Old Plays. The Parliament of Bees and Humour out of Breath were printed in Nero and other Plays (Mermaid Series, 1888), with an introduction by Arthur Symons. An appreciation by Algernon Charles Swinburne appeared in The Nineteenth Century (October 1897).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 
1659
 
 
Moliere: "Les Precieuses ridicules"
 

Les Précieuses ridicules (French pronunciation: ​[le pʁesjøz ʁidikyl], The Ridiculous Précieuses or The Affected Ladies) is a one-act satire by Moliere in prose.

 

MASCARILLE:
What do you think of my little goose? Do you find it goes with my outfit?

CATHOS:
Absolutely.

(from Les Précieuses ridicules). Drawing by Moreau le Jeune.
  It takes aim at the précieuses, the ultra-witty ladies who indulged in lively conversations, word games and, in a word, préciosité (preciousness).

Les Précieuses ridicules is a biting comedy of manners that brought Molière and his company to the attention of Parisians, after they had toured the provinces for years.

The play received its Paris premiere on 18 November 1659 at the Théâtre du Petit-Bourbon.

It seems not to have been staged before that in the provinces. It was highly successful and attracted the patronage of Louis XIV to Molière and company. Les Précieuses ridicules still plays well today.

Plot
Les précieuses are Magdelon and Cathos, two young women from the provinces who have come to Paris in search of love and jeux d'esprit.
Gorgibus, the father of Magdelon and uncle of Cathos, decides they should marry a pair of eminently eligible young men but the two women find the men unrefined and ridicule them. The men vow to take revenge on les précieuses.

On stage comes Mascarille, a young man who pretends to be a sophisticated man of the world. Magdelon falls in love with him. Next on stage comes another young man, Jodelet, with whom Cathos falls in love.

It is revealed that these two men, Mascarille and Jodelet, are impostors whose real identities are as the valets of the first two men who were scorned and rejected.

As the curtain falls, Gorgibus and les précieuses are ashamed at having fallen for the trick. In the provinces, the young ladies' Parisian pretensions merited mockery, while in Paris, their puffed-up provincial naiveté and self-esteem proved laughable
 
 

Cast

La Grange -- one of the rejected suitors
Du Croisy -- the other rejected suitor
Gorgibus -- a good bourgeois man
Magdelon -- daughter of Gorgibus and one of the précieuses ridicules
Cathos -- niece of Gorgibus and the other of the précieuses ridicules
Marotte -- servant of the précieuses ridicules
Almanzor -- lackey of the précieuses ridicules
Marquis de Mascarille -- the valet of La Grange
Vicomte de Jodelet -- the valet of Du Croisy
Two chair porters
Neighbors

The role of the Marquis de Mascarille was originally played by Molière himself while the role of Magdelon was first played by Madeleine Béjart.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
     
  Moliere 
 

"Tartuffe Or, the Hypocrite"
"The Misanthrope"
"The Impostures of Scapin"
"The Imaginary Invalid"
     
 
 
     
  Western Literature

English Literature - German literature
French literature - Russian literature
American literature
     
 
 
 
1659
 
 
Joost van den Vondel (Van den Vondel Joost): "Jephta," tragedy
 
 

"Jephta," by William Blake
 
 
 

 
 
CONTENTS
  BACK-1658 Part III NEXT-1659 Part II