1000 - 1099 PART VIII
  PART I 1000-1000 * PART X 1066-1066
  PART II 1001-1010 * PART XI 1067-1070
  PART III 1011-1020 * PART XII 1071-1072
  PART IV 1021-1030 * PART XIII 1073-1075
  PART V 1031-1040 * PART XIV 1076-1078
  PART VI 1041-1047 * PART XV 1079-1080
  PART VII 1048-1050 * PART XVI 1081-1090
  PART VIII 1051-1060 * PART XVII 1091-1095
  PART IX 1061-1065 * PART XVIII 1096-1099
  BACK-1000-1099 PART VII NEXT-1000-1099 PART IX    
1000 - 1099
Battle of Svolder
Battle of Svolder
Piast Dynasty
Chola dynasty
Archbishopric of Gniezno
Berengar of Tours
Sei Shonagan
The Pillow Book
Abbey of St. Hilaire
S. Pietro, Perugia
Candi Prambanan
Candi Prambanan
Bridge of Ten Thousand Ages
Leif Ericson
The Potato Song
Henry II
Edward the Confessor
The St. Brice's Day
The Bamberg Cathedral
Bamberg Cathedral
Malcolm II
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Bruno of Querfurt
Sergius IV
Ibn Yunus
Peace and Truce of God
Richer of St. Remy
Murasaki Shikibu
Murasaki Shikibu
"The Tale of Genji"
St. Mary's Cathedral
Gregorian chant
Guillaume de Machaut. Messe de Notre Dame. Agnus Dei
Burchard of Worms
Benedict VIII
Battle at Clontarf
Battle at Clontarf
Battle of Kleidion
Battle of Kleidion
Battle of Strumica
Jaroslav I
Strasbourg Cathedral
Strasbourg Cathedral
Strasbourg Cathedral
Strasbourg Cathedral Organ
Brihadeeswarar Temple
Olaf II Haraldsson
Bernard II
Guo Xi
Dancing mania
Notker Labeo
John XIX
Battle of the Helgea
Robert the Devil
Conrad II
Salian Dynasty
Romanus III
Battle of Stiklestad
Henry I king of France
Rudolf III
Benedict IX
Bury St. Edmunds
Anselm of Canterbury
Duncan I of Scotland
Michael IV
Wurzburg Cathedral
Harold Harefoot
Svein Knutsson
Ferdinand I of Castile
Vallumbrosan Order
Henry III
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
Truce of God
Battle of Montemaggiore
Casimir I
Magnus I
Constantine IX
Rus'–Byzantine War (1043)
Gregory VI
Bi Sheng
Clement II
William I the Conqueror
Battle of Val-ès-Dunes
Sweyn II Estrithson
Harald III Sigurdsson
Andrew I
Siward, Earl of Northumbria: Career and Legend
Damascus II
Omar Khayyam
Omar Khayyam
"The Rubaiyat"
Leo IX
Exeter Cathedral
Jain Dilwara temples
St. Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod
Harpist Anne van Schothorst
Conrad I Duke of Bavaria
Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
Robert Guiscard
Henry IV
Victor II
Michael VI Bringas
Battle of Varaville
Isaac I Komnenos
Stephen X
Ostromir Gospels
Malcolm III
Boleslaw II
Benedict X
Al Gazali
Parma Cathedral
Constantine X
Nicholas II
Bonn Minster
Philip I
Bela I
Daphni Monastery
Alexander II
Anno II
Alp Arslan
Pisa Cathedral
Sancho II
Harold II
Battle of Stamford Bridge
Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings
Romanesque architecture
From Carolingian to Romanesque Art
Fotheringhay Castle
White Tower
Comet Halley
Bayeux Tapestry
Bayeux Tapestry
Monte Cassino
Battle Abbey
Romanus IV Diogenes
Hereward the Wake
Welf IV
Robert I of Flanders
Arnulf III
Battle of Cassel
Michael VII
Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
Richmond Castle
Constantine the African
Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen
Palazzo Reale, Palermo
Peter Damian
Ouyang Xiu
Abbey of Sainte-Trinite
Gregory VII
Mesa Verde
Airavatesvara Temple
Treaty of Gerstungen
Geza I
Malik Shah
Cathedral de Santiago de Compostela
Godfrey IV
Walk to Canossa
Lewes Priory
St Albans Cathedra
Nicephorus III Botaneiates
Michael Psellos
Tower of London
Frederick of Staufen
Peter Abelard
"The Love Letters of Abelard and Heloise"
Hereford Cathedral
Canute IV
Rudolf of Swabia
Alexius I
Judah ha-Levi
Grande Chartreuse
Vratislav II
Almoravid dynasty
Domesday Book
Victor III
Carthusian Order
Shen Kuo
William II
Robert II Curthose
Conrad II King of Germany
Urban II
Treaty of Caen
Wilhelm von Hirsau
Ibn Ezra
Carlisle Castle
Donald III of Scotland
Magnus III
Chester Cathedral
Chester Cathedral
Eric I
Council of Clermont
First Crusade
Norwich Cathedral
Louis VI
Citeaux Abbey
Rajarani Temple
Battle of Jerusalem
Battle of Jerusalem
Paschal II
Basilica of Notre-Dame du Port
The First Crusade and its Aftermath

Westminster Abbey

The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English, later British and later still (and currently) monarchs of the Commonwealth realms.
YEAR BY YEAR:  1000 - 1099
Part VIII: 1051 - 1060


IN MOROCCO, IN 1054 A FIREBRAND CLERIC NAMED IBN YASIN inspired the unification of Saharan tribal groups.The confederation—known as the Almoravids, from the Arabic "al-Murabitun" ("people of the frontier garrisons")—built an empire that would eventually encompass much of northwestern Africa and Muslim Spain. In 1056, the Almoravids began the Islamic conquest of West Africa, where a number of powerful states had arisen, including that of Ghana.

Yoruba was the name given by outsiders to a group of city-states in Nigeria that shared a common language and culture. The oldest and most prestigious Yoruba kingdom was Ife, where a sophisticated urban culture was well established by the mid-11th century. Ife was the spiritual and mythical center of the Yoruba, but its poor location meant that it never exerted wide-ranging military or political control over the other Yoruba states. Ife is most famous for its artistic achievements, most notably terracotta and bronze heads.

In 1059, Pope Nicholas II recognized Robert Guiscard the Norman as Duke of Apulia and Calabria, and Count of Sicily-territories under Byzantine and Arab control—legitimizing his attempts to conquer them.

Pisa takes Sardinia from the Arabs
Rebellion of Conrad, Duke of Bavaria
Conrad I

Conrad I (ca. 1020 – 5 December 1055), also known as Cuno or Kuno, was the duke of Bavaria from 1049 to 1053. He was of the Ezzonen family, his parents being Liudolf, Count of Zütphen and eldest son of Ezzo, Count Palatine of Lorraine, and Matilda. For this, he is sometimes called Conrad of Zutphen.

After eighteen months of vacancy since the death of Henry VII, the duchy of Bavaria was filled on 2 February 1049 by the Emperor Henry III with Cuno. Cuno was the possible successor of childless emperor. He was not the choice of the Bavarian nobility, but was intended to draw the duchy closer to the crown. This failed, for Cuno married against the will of the emperor when he wed Judith of Schweinfurt, daughter of Otto III, Duke of Swabia. He tried to increase his power in Bavaria and was in conflict with Gebhard III, Bishop of Regensburg.

Finally, he was summoned to a Christmas court at Merseburg in 1052-1053 and there deposed. He was replaced early the next year by Henry's unexpectedly newborn son, later the Emperor Henry IV.

Cuno, who had not come to blows with the bishop, returned to Bavaria and rebelled. He was in league with the rebellious Welf of Carinthia and Andrew I of Hungary. He died in exile after trying to assassinate the Emperor and seize the throne, having been abandoned by Welf, in 1055. He was buried in St Mariengraden in Cologne in 1063.

His enumeration is a little confused. He is sometimes not considered a Conrad, thus Conrad II is numbered Conrad I.

Edward the Confessor begins building Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey

The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English, later British and later still (and currently) monarchs of the Commonwealth realms. The abbey is a Royal Peculiar and briefly held the status of a cathedral from 1540 to 1550.

Westminster Abbey is a collegiate church governed by the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, as established by Royal charter of Queen Elizabeth I in 1560, which created it as the Collegiate Church of St Peter Westminster and a Royal Peculiar under the personal jurisdiction of the Sovereign. The members of the Chapter are the Dean and four residentiary canons, assisted by the Receiver General and Chapter Clerk. One of the canons is also Rector of St Margaret's Church, Westminster, and often holds also the post of Chaplain to the Speaker of the House of Commons. In addition to the Dean and canons, there are at present two full-time minor canons, one is precentor, and the other is sacrist. The office of Priest Vicar was created in the 1970s for those who assist the minor canons. Together with the clergy and Receiver General and Chapter Clerk, various lay officers constitute the college, including the Organist and Master of the Choristers, the Registrar, the Auditor, the Legal Secretary, the Surveyor of the Fabric, the Head Master of the Choir School, the Keeper of the Muniments and the Clerk of the Works, as well as 12 lay vicars, 10 choristers and the High Steward and High Bailiff. There are also 40 Queen's Scholars who are pupils at Westminster School (the School has its own Governing Body). Those who are most directly concerned with liturgical and ceremonial matters are the two minor canons and the organist and Master of the Choristers.
Westminster Abbey

The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English, later British and later still (and currently) monarchs of the Commonwealth realms. The abbey is a Royal Peculiar and briefly held the status of a cathedral from 1540 to 1550.

al-Bīrūnī, in full Abū al-Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Bīrūnī (born Sept. 4, 973 ce, Khwārezm, Khorāsān [now in Uzbekistan]—died c. 1052, Ghazna [now Ghaznī, Afg.), Muslim astronomer, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist, historian, and geographer.

Al-Bīrūnī lived during a period of unusual political turmoil in the eastern Islamic world. He served more than six different princes, all of whom were known for their bellicose activities and a good number of whom met their ends in violent deaths. Nevertheless, he managed to become the most original polymath the Islamic world had ever known.


Little is known of his early life. He was born in Khwārezm, in the region beyond the ancient Oxus River (the river now known as the Amu Darya), and he was educated by a Khwārezm-Shāh prince, Abū Naṣr Manṣūr ibn ʿIrāq, a member of the dynasty that ruled the area and possibly a patron of al-Bīrūnī. Some of the mathematical works of this prince were written especially for al-Bīrūnī and are at times easily confused with al-Bīrūnī’s own works.

Of his own personal background even less is known. By his own admission, in a poem preserved in a medieval biographical dictionary, al-Bīrūnī claims that he did not know his own father, much less his family origins. He said this in the context of demonstrating his total disgust with flattery, even when it was being directed at him.

His early patronage by the Khwārezm-Shāhs did not seem to have lasted long, for one of their subordinates rebelled against his master and killed him, thus causing a civil war (c. 996–998) that forced al-Bīrūnī to flee and seek patronage from the more formidable Sāmānid dynasty, which ruled the vast eastern lands of Islam, comprising what is now eastern Iran and much of Afghanistan. A short while after al-Bīrūnī found refuge in the Sāmānid capital of Bukhara, a prince of another local dynasty, Qābūs ibn Voshmgīr, was also dethroned and sought help from the Sāmānids to regain his throne. Help was apparently given, for the next record of al-Bīrūnī is when he was in the company of Qābūs in the city of Gurgān near the Caspian Sea. At Qābūs’s court, al-Bīrūnī met the famous philosopher-scientist Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) and exchanged with him a philosophical correspondence that did not lack jealousies and slighting. Al-Bīrūnī also dedicated his Al-Āthār al-bāqiyyah ʿan al-qurūn al-khāliyyah (The Chronology of Ancient Nations) to Qābūs.

After a period in which al-Bīrūnī undertook extensive travels—or rather escapes from wars, and a constant search for patrons—the entire domain of the Sāmānids fell under the brutal reign of Maḥmūd, son of Sebüktigin. Maḥmūd took Ghazna as his capital in 998 and demanded that both al-Bīrūnī and Avicenna join his court. Avicenna managed to escape, but al-Bīrūnī did not, and he worked in Ghazna until the end of his life when he was not accompanying Maḥmūd on his campaigns into northern India. Even though al-Bīrūnī was possibly the unwilling guest of a merciless warrior, he still made use of the occasion to pen the acute observations about India that would earn him fame as an ethnographer, anthropologist, and eloquent historian of Indian science.

Listing al-Bīrūnī’s works is relatively easy, for he himself produced an index of his works up to when he was about 60 years old. However, he lived well into his seventies, and, since some of his surviving works are not mentioned in this index, the index is a partial list at best. Adding all the titles in the index, as well as those found later, brings his total production to 146 titles, each averaging about 90 folios. Almost half of the titles were on astronomical and mathematical subjects. Only a minuscule number of his output, 22 titles, has survived, and only about half of that has been published.

His book on Indian culture is by far the most important of his encyclopaedic works. Its expressive title, Taḥqīq mā li-l-hind min maqūlah maqbūlah fī al-ʿaql aw mardhūlah (“Verifying All That the Indians Recount, the Reasonable and the Unreasonable”), says it all; it includes all the lore that al-Bīrūnī could gather about India and its science, religion, literature, and customs. His only other competing encyclopaedic work, in terms of depth and extent of coverage, is The Chronology of Ancient Nations, which is devoted to a universal anthropological account of various cultures and which even records the lore of long-dead cultures or of other cultures that were about to disappear. Taken together, these two works preserve the best premodern description of the cultures al-Bīrūnī came to know. In the latter work, for example, is the most elaborate treatment of the Jewish calendar—more extensive than any surviving medieval Hebrew source and much more scientifically reasoned than any other treatment that this calendar had received up to that time.

  An equally encyclopaedic scientific work is the inimitable Al-Qānūn al-Masʿūdi (“The Masʿūdic Canon”), dedicated to Masʿūd, the son of Maḥmūd of Ghazna, in which al-Bīrūnī gathered together all the astronomical knowledge from such sources as Ptolemy’s Almagest and Handy Tables after having had these two particular works updated. Nevertheless, al-Bīrūnī’s original input is clearly noticeable in almost every chapter. For example, al-Bīrūnī developed new algebraic techniques for the solution of third-degree equations, drew a subtle distinction between the motion of the solar apogee and the motion of precession, and explored many other applied mathematical techniques to achieve much higher precision and ease of use of tabulated astronomical results.

His Al-Tafhīm li-awāʾil ṣināʿat al-tanjīm (“Elements of Astrology”) is still the most comprehensive treatment of the topic as it was then known. Despite the fact that most people believed that astrology was “the fruit of the mathematical sciences,” as al-Bīrūnī called it, his personal opinion of the discipline was “as weak as that of its least adherents.” However, he was fully aware of the importance of astrology as a tool for teaching mathematical and astronomical disciplines. Under the pretext of teaching astrology, he devoted almost two-thirds of this voluminous work to teaching his patron, the otherwise obscure Rayḥānah for whom the book was written, elementary mathematics, astronomy, geography, chronology, and the making of the astrolabe as an observational instrument. After all those disciplines were clearly laid out in question-and-answer format, al-Bīrūnī then allowed his patron to venture into astrology proper—but not before warning her that he himself thought little of the subject.

The Taḥdid nihāyāt al-amākin li-taṣḥīḥ masāfāt al-masākin (“Determination of the Coordinates of Places for the Correction of Distances Between Cities”) is al-Bīrūnī’s masterpiece in mathematical geography. In it he not only defended the role of the mathematical sciences against the attacks of religious scholars who could not understand the utility of the mathematical sciences but also detailed all that one needed to know about determining longitudes and latitudes on land. He capped that particular discussion with a solution to the rather sophisticated spherical trigonometric problem of determining the direction of Mecca along the local horizon at Ghazna. Besides being a challenging mathematical problem, determining the direction of Mecca is a religious requirement for the performance of the ordained five daily prayers in Islam. Thus, not only did al-Bīrūnī not miss a chance to demonstrate the very useful role of the mathematical sciences in religion, but he also used the occasion (as he had done in his treatise on astrology) to include other scientific matters. For example, he raised questions about the formation of mountains and explained the existence there of fossils by positing that Earth was once underwater. (He also raised these questions in his book on India). In both cases he treated these matters with a scientific objectivity that matches the modern explanation.

His relatively minor works are only minor in size, for they are at least as sophisticated as his major works. Al-Bīrūnī’s Maqālīd ʿilm al-hayʾah (“Keys to Astronomy”), Al-jamāhir fī maʿrifat al-jawāhir (“Gems”), Kitāb al-ṣaydanah (“Pharmacology”), and Ifrād al-maqāl fī amr al-ẓilāl (The Exhaustive Treatise on Shadows), to name only a few, dealt with specific subjects, but in each case the subject was given comprehensive treatment. Furthermore, in a perfect al-Bīrūnī manner, each work contains extremely original comments on seemingly unrelated subjects. For example, in the introduction to his book on gems, al-Bīrūnī gave an elaborate description of man’s place in nature and society and the social need for economic systems. In that context he wrote of precious metals and gems, which were considered foundational for any economic system, and he wrote of diamonds and their particular social importance. In the introduction to his book on pharmacology, he wrote about the importance of language in identifying drugs and in that context took an excursion into the relative worth of languages. He posed as an outsider to both Arabic and Persian as he evaluated their scientific utility, and he enunciated his now famous personal preference “to be criticized in Arabic rather than be praised in Persian.”

His Istīʿāb al-wujūh al-mumkinah fī ṣanʿat al-asṭurlāb (“Exhaustive Book on Astrolabes”) discusses the possibility of Earth’s motion, as a consequence of a particular case of one astrolabe projection, only to dismiss it quickly as philosophical speculation that should not preoccupy the practical astronomer and applied mathematician. The rest of the book details all the various projections of astrolabe parts, mainly retes (star projections), that al-Bīrūnī was familiar with or could imagine.

Al-Bīrūnī did not seem to have any interest in the subject of astronomical cosmology, a subject usually broached by authors of a genre of Islamic astronomical literature called hayʾah texts that were much in the tradition of Ptolemy’s Planetary Hypotheses but often critical of that tradition. There is only one hint, in a book known only by its title from other sources, Ibṭāl al-buhtān bi-īrād al-burhān (Disqualifying Falsehood by Producing Proof), that he ever approached such speculative cosmological questions. Even then his comments were apparently restricted to the particular problem of latitude theory in Ptolemaic astronomy.

George Saliba

Encyclopædia Britannica


Godwine, also spelled Godwin (died April 15, 1053), earl of Wessex, the most powerful man in England during the opening years of the reign of Edward the Confessor.

Although an Anglo-Saxon, Godwine became a favourite of the Danish king of England, Canute the Great, who made him earl of Wessex about 1018. In the disputes over the succession that followed the death of Canute, Godwine was held responsible for the murder (1036) of one of the claimants to the throne, Alfred the Aetheling. Godwine maintained his position, however, and went on to dominate Edward the Confessor.

In 1045 Godwine married his daughter Edith to Edward. Nevertheless, Edward wanted to throw off Godwine’s influence so that he would be free to fill his court with Norman courtiers. In 1051 he outlawed Godwine for refusing to punish the men of Dover, who had defied a Norman lord.

Edward’s pro-Norman policies, however, soon aroused widespread hostility. Seizing his opportunity, Godwine emerged from exile to join his son Harold and invade England in September 1052. The defenseless Edward was forced to restore all the possessions and offices of the Godwine family. Harold became earl of Wessex upon the death of Godwine, and in 1066 he succeeded to Edward’s throne as Harold II.

The Norman Robert Guiscard (c. 1015-1085) conquers southern Italy and founds Norman empire there
Robert Guiscard

Robert, byname Robert Guiscard, or Robert de Hauteville, Italian Roberto Guiscardo, or Roberto d’Altavilla (born c. 1015, Normandy [France]—died July 17, 1085, near Cephalonia, Greece, Byzantine Empire), Norman adventurer who settled in Apulia, in southern Italy, about 1047 and became duke of Apulia (1059). He eventually extended Norman rule over Naples, Calabria, and Sicily and laid the foundations of the Kingdom of Sicily.

Arrival in Apulia
Robert was born into a family of knights. Arriving in Apulia, in southern Italy, around 1047 to join his half brother Drogo, he found that it and Campania, though they were southern Italy’s most flourishing regions, were plagued by political disturbances. These regions attracted hordes of fortune-seeking Norman immigrants, who were to transform the political role of both regions in the following decades.

In Campania, the Lombards of Capua were launching wars against the Byzantine dukes of Naples in order to gain possession of that important seaport. In Apulia, William (“Iron Arm”) de Hauteville, Robert’s eldest half brother, having successfully defeated the Byzantine Greeks who controlled that region, had been elected count of Apulia in 1042. In 1046 he had been succeeded by his brother Drogo.

When Robert joined his brothers, they sent him to Calabria to attack Byzantine territory. He began his campaign by pillaging the countryside and ransoming its people. In 1053, at the head of the combined forces of Normans from Apulia and Campania, he defeated the haphazardly led forces of the Byzantines, the Lombards, and the papacy at Civitate. Because of the deaths of William and Drogo and of his third half brother, Count Humphrey, in 1057, Robert returned to Apulia to seize control from Humphrey’s sons and save the region from disgregating internal conflicts. After becoming the recognized leader of the Apulian Normans, Robert resumed his campaign in Calabria. His brother Roger’s arrival from Normandy enabled him to extend and solidify his conquests in Apulia.

  In his progression from gang leader to commander of mercenary troops to conqueror, Robert emerged as a shrewd and perspicacious political figure. In 1059 he entered into a concordat at Melfi with Pope Nicholas II. Until that time the papacy had been hostile toward the Normans, considering them to be an anarchist force that upset the political structure in southern Italy—a structure based on a balance of power between the Byzantines and the Lombards of northern Italy. The schism that took place between the Greek and Latin churches in 1054 temporarily worsened the relations between the Byzantine emperors and the papacy, and eventually the papacy realized that Norman conquests over the Byzantines could work to its advantage. Robert’s plan to expel the Arabs from Sicily and restore Christianity to the island also found favour in Nicholas’ eyes. This expedition into Sicily got under way in 1060, as soon as the conquest of Calabria was completed. Robert entrusted the command of the expedition to his brother Roger, but on particularly difficult occasions—e.g., the siege of Palermo in 1071—he came to his brother’s aid.

Until this time, Robert’s relations with Roger had not always been amicable, since Roger, aware of both his own talent and Robert’s dependency on him, would not settle for the subordinate role allotted him. Their differences were resolved when Robert invested Roger, after he had recognized Robert’s supreme authority, with “the County of Sicily and Calabria” along with the right to govern and tax both counties.

Expansion of the Duchy
Robert continued to expand the small county left by Humphrey into a duchy, extending from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian sea. The capture of Bari in April 1071 resulted in the end of Byzantine rule in southern Italy. Robert turned next to the neighbouring territories of Salerno, controlled by the Lombards. Instead of fighting them, he dissolved his first marriage and in 1058 married the sister of Salerno’s last Lombard prince, Gisulf II. Hostilities broke out between the two rulers, however, and Gisulf naively tried to bring about a Byzantine counteroffensive against Robert. Fearing that the Norman advances into Campania, Molise, and Abruzzi would threaten the papal dominions, Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Robert and gave Gisulf considerable military aid. The struggle came to a head when Gisulf, determined to display his power, advanced toward the prosperous city of Amalfi. Robert responded to the city’s plea for help in 1073 and successfully defended it; in December 1076 he took Salerno from Gisulf and made it the capital of his duchy.
Robert was now at the height of his power. During his rise he repressed with an iron hand not only the claims of Humphrey’s sons but also the uprisings of towns and lords that were fretting under the restraints imposed upon them. The harshness with which Robert chose to deal with these rebels was intended to transform a heterogeneous population into a strong state. When, in 1080, the conflict between church and state over the right to control ecclesiastical personnel and property had become more intense, Robert chose to reconcile himself with Gregory VII, entering into the Concordat of Ceprano, which confirmed the commitments of the earlier Council of Melfi. Even the Byzantine court drew closer to him and went as far as trying to establish a familial relationship with Robert. The Byzantine emperor Michael VII, in need of Robert’s help to uphold his unstable throne, married his son, Constantine, to one of Robert’s daughters, Helen. The opposition party, however, deposed Michael and confined Helen in a monastery. To guarantee Apulia against attack from the new rulers of Byzantium, Robert wanted the territories on the Adriatic coast of the Balkan Peninsula, and he began to build a large navy. Michael’s expulsion and Helen’s confinement reawakened his unappeased spirit of adventure and hastened his long-considered expedition. Now his goal was even more ambitious: to march to Byzantium and crown himself emperor in place of the deposed Michael.   In 1083 Robert landed in Epirus with a well-trained army and immediately succeeded in defeating the Byzantines and their Venetian allies. The pope, however, suddenly recalled him to Italy to help him expel the German king Henry IV, who was marching on Rome en route to claiming southern Italy for the Holy Roman Empire. Having returned home and suppressed the revolts of the lords hostile to himself and to Pope Gregory VII, Robert moved toward Rome, defeated the pope’s enemies, and escorted him to Salerno in the summer of 1084. Following this success, he returned to his campaign on the Adriatic coast. He died during the siege of Cephalonia on July 17, 1085.


Physically attractive, endowed with an acute and unscrupulous intelligence, a brilliant strategist and competent statesman, Robert had begun to organize a state composed of diverse ethnic and civil groups: Latin and Germanic in Lombard territories and Greek in Byzantine domains. The new political structure was built on a monarchial-feudal framework characteristic of the time, but it was controlled by the energetic and uncompromising Robert, who tried to use his ducal power to create a powerful and prosperous state. The other base on which he built was Latin Christianity, the religion of the conquerors and most of the conquered, which he used to reconcile the subjected peoples.


An extremely religious man, Robert was distrustful of the Greek clergy because of their ties with Byzantium. On the other hand, his generosity toward the Latin church was bountiful. He endowed it with territories and clerical immunities in order to tie it firmly to himself. Splendid cathedrals and Benedictine abbeys were built in the hope that they would consolidate and diffuse Latin language and culture among the heterogeneous people and tie them into a new, unified state.

Ernesto Pontieri

Encyclopædia Britannica

Danegeld abolished
Danegeld, a tax levied in Anglo-Saxon England to buy off Danish invaders in the reign of Ethelred II (978–1016); it also designates the recurrent gelds, or taxes, collected by the Anglo-Norman kings. The word is not recorded before the Norman Conquest, the usual earlier (Old English) term being gafol (“gavel,” or “tribute”). Though the Danes were sometimes bought off in the 9th century in both England and France, the word Danegeld is usually applied to the payments that began in 991 and continued at intervals until 1016. Danegeld is distinct from heregeld, an annual tax levied between 1012 and 1051 to pay Danish mercenaries. The Anglo-Norman and Angevin kings continued the geld until 1162.
Henry IV, son of Henry III, elected and crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV

Henry IV, (born Nov. 11, 1050, Goslar?, Saxony—died Aug. 7, 1106, Liège, Lorraine), duke of Bavaria (as Henry VIII, 1055–61), German king (from 1054), and Holy Roman emperor (1084–1105/06), who engaged in a long struggle with Hildebrand (Pope Gregory VII) on the question of lay investiture (see Investiture Controversy), eventually drawing excommunication on himself and doing penance at Canossa (1077). His last years were spent countering the rebellion of his sons Conrad and Henry (the future Henry V).

  Early years.
Henry’s father, Henry III, had retained a firm hold on the church and had resolved a schism in Rome (1046), opening new activities for the reformers. At Easter 1051, the boy was baptized after the German princes had taken an oath of fidelity and obedience at Christmas 1050. On July 17, 1053, he was elected king at Tribur (modern Trebur, in Germany) on condition that he would be a just king. In 1054 he was crowned king in Aix-la-Chapelle (modern Aachen, in Germany), and the following year he became engaged to Bertha, daughter of the Margrave of Turin. When the Emperor died in October 1056, at the age of 39, succession to the throne and survival of the dynasty were assured. The princes of the realm raised no objection when nominal government was handed over to the six-year-old boy, for whom his pious and unworldly mother became regent. Yet the early death of Henry III was the beginning of a fateful change that marked all of his son’s reign. In his will, the late emperor had appointed Pope Victor II as counsellor to the Empress, and the Pope solved some of the conflicts between the princes and the imperial court that had endangered peace in the empire.

After Victor’s early death (1057), however, the politically inept empress committed a number of decisive mistakes. On her own, and without the benefit of the advice of a permanent group of counsellors, she readily yielded to various influences. She turned over the duchy of Bavaria, which Henry III had given to his son in 1055, to the Saxon count Otto of Nordheim, thus depriving the king of an important foundation of his power. 

She gave the duchy of Swabia to Count Rudolf of Rheinfelden—who married her daughter—and the duchy of Carinthia to Count Berthold of Zähringen; both of them eventually became opponents of Henry IV. The death of the Emperor also marked the disruption of German influence in Italy and of the close relationship between the king and the reform popes.

Their independence soon became apparent in the elections of Stephen IX and Nicholas II, which were not influenced (as under Henry III) by the German court; in the new procedure for the election of the popes (1059); and in the defensive alliance with the Normans in southern Italy. This alliance was necessary for the popes as an effective protection against the Romans and was not directed against the German king. Yet the Normans were considered usurpers and enemies of the Holy Roman Empire; the pact thus resulted in strained relations between the Pope and the German court, and these strains were aggravated by papal claims and disciplinary action taken by Nicholas II against German bishops. While the German king had so far been known as a supporter of the reformers, the Empress now imprudently entered into an alliance with Italian opponents of church reform and brought about the election of Cadalus, bishop of Parma, as antipope (Honorius II) against the reigning pope, Alexander II, who had been elected by the reformers. But since she did not give effective support to Honorius, Alexander was able to prevail. Her unwise church policy was matched by an obscurely motivated submissive policy at home, which, by unwarranted cession of holdings of the crown, weakened the material foundations of the king’s power and, in addition, encouraged the rapacity of the nobles. Increasing discontent reached a climax in a conspiracy of the princes led by Anno, archbishop of Cologne, in April 1062. During a court assembly in Kaiserswerth he kidnapped the young king and had him brought to Cologne by ship. Henry’s attempt to escape by jumping into the Rhine failed. Agnes resigned as regent and the government was taken over by Anno, who settled the conflict with the church by recognizing Alexander II (1064). Anno was, however, too dominating and inflexible a man to win Henry’s confidence, so that Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen, granting more freedom to the lascivious young king, gained increasing and finally sole influence. But he used it for such unscrupulous personal enrichment that Henry, who was declared of age in 1065, had to ban him from court early in 1066.

Henry IV begging Matilda of Canossa
  This incident marks the beginning of the King’s own rule, for which he was badly prepared. Repeated changes in the government of the empire had an unsettling effect on the boy king and had, moreover, prevented him from being given a regular education. The selfishness of his tutors, the dissolute character of his companions, and the traumatic experience of his kidnapping had produced a lack of moral stability during his years of puberty. In addition, his love of power, typical of all the rulers of his dynasty, contributed to conduct often characterized by recklessness and indiscretion.

In 1069, after three years of marriage, he suddenly announced his intention of divorcing his wife, Bertha. Following protests by high church dignitaries, he dropped his plan, but his mercurial behaviour incurred the displeasure of the reformers. At the same time he was faced with domestic difficulties that were to harass him throughout his reign.

After his mother had freely dispensed of lands during her regency, he began to increase the royal possessions in the Harz Mountains and to protect them by castles, which he handed over to Swabian ministerials (higher civil servants directly responsible to the crown). Peasants and nobles in Saxony were stirred up by the ruthless repossession of former royal rights that had long ago been appropriated by nobility or had become obsolete and by the high-handed and severe measures of the foreign ministerials.
Henry tried to stop the unrest by imprisoning Magnus, the duke of Saxony, and by depriving the widely respected Otto of Bavaria of his duchy, after having unjustly accused him of plotting the murder of the King (1070). Then a rebellion broke out among the Saxons, which in 1073 spread so rapidly that Henry had to escape to Worms. After negotiations with Welf IV, the new duke (as Welf I) of Bavaria, and with Rudolf, the duke of Swabia, Henry was forced to grant immunity to the rebels in 1073 and had to agree to the razing of the royal Harz Castle in the final peace treaty in February 1074. When the peasants, destroying the castle, also desecrated the church and the tomb of one of the King’s sons, Henry declared the peace broken.

This incident assured him of support from all over the empire, and in June 1075 he won an overwhelming victory that resulted in the surrender of the Saxons. It also forced the princes at Christmas to confirm on oath the succession of his one-year-old son, Conrad.

Schwoiser Heinrich vor Canossa
  Role in investiture conflict.
This rebellion affected relations between Henry and the Pope. In Milan a popular party, the Patarines, dedicated to reforming the city’s corrupt higher clergy, elected its own archbishop, who was recognized by the Pope. When Henry countered by having his own nominee consecrated by the Lombard bishops, Alexander II excommunicated the bishops. Henry did not yield, and it was not until the Saxon rebellion that he was ready to negotiate. In 1073 he humbly asked the new pope, Gregory VII, to settle the Milan problem. The King having thus renounced his right of investiture, a Roman synod, called to strengthen the Patarine movement, forbade any lay investiture in Milan; henceforward Gregory regarded Henry as his ally in questions of church reform. When planning a crusade, he even put the defense of the Roman Church into the King’s hands. But after defeating the Saxons, Henry considered himself strong enough to cancel his agreements with the Pope and to nominate his court chaplain as archbishop of Milan. The violation of the agreement on investiture called into question the King’s trustworthiness, and the Pope sent him a letter warning him of the melancholy fate of King Saul (after breaking with his church in the person of the prophet Samuel) but offering negotiations on the investiture problem. Instead of accepting the offer, which arrived at his court on Jan. 1, 1076, Henry, on the same day, deposed the Pope and persuaded an assembly of 26 bishops, hastily called to Worms, to refuse obedience to the Pope. By this impulsive reaction he turned the problem of investiture in Milan, which could have been solved by negotiations, into a fundamental dispute on the relations between church and state. Gregory replied by excommunicating Henry and absolving the King’s subjects from their oaths of allegiance. Such action equalled dethronement.
Many bishops who had taken part in the Worms assembly and had subsequently been excommunicated now surrendered to the Pope, and immediately the King was also faced with the newly aroused opposition of the nobility. In October 1076 the princes discussed the election of a new king in Tribur. It was only by promising to seek absolution from the ban within a year that Henry could reach a postponement of the election. The final decision was to be taken at an assembly to be called at Augsburg to which the Pope was also invited. But Henry secretly travelled to northern Italy and in Canossa did penance before Gregory VII, whereupon he was readmitted to the church. For the moment it was a political success for the King because the opposition had been deprived of all canonical arguments. Yet, Canossa meant a change. By doing penance Henry had admitted the legality of the Pope’s measures and had given up the king’s traditional position of authority equal or even superior to that of the church. The relations between church and state were changed forever.

The princes, however, considered Canossa a breach of the original agreement providing for an assembly at Augsburg and declared Henry dethroned. In his stead, they elected Rudolf, duke of Swabia, in March 1077, whereupon Henry confiscated the duchies of Bavaria and Swabia on behalf of the crown. He received support from the peasants and citizens of these duchies, whereas Rudolf relied mainly on the Saxons.

  Gregory watched the indecisive struggle between Henry and Rudolf for almost three years until he resolved to bring about a decision for the sake of continued church reform in Germany. At a synod in March 1080, he prohibited investiture, excommunicated and dethroned Henry again, and recognized Rudolf. The reasons for this act of excommunication were not as valid as those advanced in 1077, and many nobles who had so far favoured the Pope turned against him because they thought the prohibition of investiture infringed upon their rights as patrons of churches and monasteries. Henry now succeeded in deposing Gregory and in nominating Guibert, archbishop of Ravenna, as pope at a synod in Brixen (Bressanone). When the opposition of the princes was crippled by the death of Rudolf in October 1080, Henry, freed of the threat of enemies to the rear, went to Italy to seek a military decision in his struggle with the church. After attacking Rome in vain in 1081 and 1082, he conquered the city in March 1084. Guibert was enthroned as Clement III and crowned Henry emperor on March 31, 1084. Gregory, the legitimate pope, fled to Salerno, where he died on May 25, 1085. A number of cardinals joined Clement, and, feeling that he had won a complete victory, the Emperor returned to Germany. In May 1087 he had his son Conrad crowned king. The Saxons now made peace with him. Further, Henry replaced bishops who did not join Clement with others loyal to the King.
Later crises in Italy and Germany.
The escape and death of Gregory VII and the presence of Clement III in Rome caused a crisis in the reform movement of the church, from which, however, it quickly recovered under the pontificate of Urban II (1088–1099). The marriage, arranged by Urban in 1089, of the 17-year-old Welf V of Bavaria with the 43-year-old countess Matilda of Tuscany, a zealous adherent of the cause of reform in the church, allied Henry’s opponents in southern Germany and Italy. Henry was forced to invade Italy once more in 1090, but, after initial success, his defeat in 1092 resulted in the uprisings in Lombardy; and the rebellion of his son Conrad, who was crowned king of Italy by the Lombards, led to general rebellion. The Emperor found himself cut off from Germany and besieged in a corner of northeastern Italy. In addition, his second wife, Praxedis of Kiev, whom he had married in 1089 after the death of Bertha in 1087, left him, bringing serious charges against him. It was not until Welf V separated from Matilda, in 1095, and his father, the deposed Welf IV, was once more granted Bavaria as a fief, in 1096, that Henry was able to return to Germany (1097).

In Germany sympathy for reform and the papacy no longer excluded loyalty to the Emperor.


The funeral of the Emperor Henry IV
   Gradually Henry was able to consolidate his authority so that in May 1098 the princes elected his second son, Henry V, king in place of the disloyal Conrad. But peace with the Pope, which was necessary for a complete consolidation of authority, was a goal that remained unattainable. At first a settlement was impossible because of Henry’s support for Clement III, who had died in 1100. Paschal II (1099–1118), a follower of the reformist policies of Gregory VII, was unwilling to conclude an agreement with Henry. Finally, the Emperor declared that he would go on a crusade if his excommunication were removed. To prepare for the crusade, he forbade all feuds among the great nobles of the empire for four years (1103). But unrest started again when reconciliation with the church did not materialize and the nobles thought the Emperor was restricting their rights in favour of his son. Henry V feared a controversy with the princes. In alliance with Bavarian nobles he revolted against the Emperor in 1104 to secure his throne by sacrificing his father. The Emperor escaped to Cologne, but when he went to Mainz his son imprisoned him and on Dec. 31, 1105, extorted his apparently voluntary abdication. Henry IV, however, was not yet prepared to give up. He fled to Liège and with the Lotharingians defeated Henry V’s army near Visé on March 22, 1106. Henry IV suddenly died in Liège on August 7. His body was transferred to Speyer but remained there in an unconsecrated chapel before being buried in the family vault in 1111.

Judgment of Henry by his contemporaries differed according to the parties to which they belonged. His opponents considered the tall, handsome king a tyrant—the crafty head of heresy—whose death they cheered because it seemed to usher in a new age. His friends praised him as a pious, gentle, and intelligent ruler, a patron of the arts and sciences, who surrounded himself with religious scholars and who, in his sense of law and justice, was the embodiment of the ideal king. In his attempt to preserve the traditional rights of the crown, Henry IV was only partially successful, for while he strengthened the king’s position against the nobles by gaining the support of the peasants, the citizens, and the ministerials, his continuing battles with the reforming church over investiture ultimately weakened royal influence over the papacy.

Franz-Josef Schmale

Encyclopædia Britannica

Jaroslav I of Kiev d.; followed by decline of his empire
Poland recaptures Silesia from Bohemia
The papal chair remains empty for one year
Cleavage between Roman and Eastern Churches becomes permanent
Expansion of commercial relations between Italy and Egypt
Victor II

Pope Victor II (c. 1018 – 28 July 1057), born Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschberg, was Pope from 1055 to 1057. He was one of a series of German reform Popes.

  Born about 1018; died at Arezzo, 28 July, 1057.

The papal catalogues make him a native of the Bavarian Nordgau, while most German sources designate Swabia as his birthplace. His parents were Count Hartwig and Countess Baliza; the Emperor Henry III recognized him as a collateral kinsman, and he was a nephew of Bishop Gebhard III of Ratisbon, who at the court Diet of Goslar presented him (Christmas Day, 1042) to Henry III as a candidate for the episcopal see of Eichstätt. The emperor hesitated at first because Gebhard was only twenty-four years old, but, on the advice of the aged Archbishop Bardo of Mainz, he finally consented to invest him with this important see. Gebhard proved to be a good bishop and a prudent statesman.
 He was in the emperor's retinue when the latter was crowned at Rome in 1046; he took part in the synod presided over by Leo IX at Mainz in October, 1049, and in the consultations between the pope and the emperor at Ratisbon and Bamberg in 1052. By this time he had become the most influential councillor of Henry III. It was upon his advice that in 1053 a German army, which was on its way to join Leo IX in his war against the Normans, was recalled, an advice which he is said to have regretted when he was pope (Leo Marsicanus in his "Chronaicon Casinense", II, 89, in P.L., CLXXIII, 692). Early in the same year he became regent of Bavaria for the three year old Henry IV. In this capacity he had occasion to prove his loyalty towards the emperor by defending the rights of the empire against the deposed Duke Conrad, the counts of Scheyern, and his own uncle, Bishop Gebhard of Ratisbon.

After the death of Leo IX (19 April, 1054) Cardinal-subdeacon Hildebrand came to the emperor at the head of a Roman legation with the urgent request to designate Gebhard as pope. At the Diet of Mainz, in September, 1054, the emperor granted this request, but Gebhard refused to accept the papal dignity. At a court Diet held at Ratisbon in March, 1055, he finally accepted the papacy, but only on condition that the emperor restored to the Apostolic See all the possessions that had been taken from it. The emperor consented to this condition and Gebhard accompanied Hildebrand to Rome, where he was formally elected and solemnly enthroned on Maundy Thrusday, 13 April, 1055, taking the name of Victor II. Even as pope he retained the Diocese of Eichstätt. Victor II was a worthy successor of Leo IX. With untiring zeal he combated, like his predecessor, against simony and clerical concubinage. Being well supported by the emperor, he often succeeded where Leo IX had failed. On Pentecost Sunday, June 4, 1055, he held a large synod at Florence, in presence of the emperor and 120 bishops, where former decrees against simony and incontinence were confirmed and several offending bishops deposed. To King Ferdinand of Spain he sent messengers with threats of excommunication if he should continue in his refusal to acknowledge Henry III as Roman Emperor. Ferdinand submitted to the papal demands. Before the emperor returned to Germany he transferred to the pope the duchies of Spoleto and Camerino. Early in 1056 Victor II sent Hildebrand back to France to resume his labours against simony and concubinage, which he had begun under Leo IX. He appointed the archbishops Raimbaud of Arles and Pontius of Aix papal legates to battle against the same vices in Southern France. Late in the summer of the same year he accepted the urgent invitation of the emperor to come to Germany, arriving at Goslar on 8 September. He accompanied Henry III to Botfeld in the Hartz Mountains where on 5 October he witnessed the untimely death of the emperor. Before his death, the emperor entrusted his six-year-old successor, Henry IV, and the regency of the kingdom to the pope. On 28 October, after burying the emperor in the cathedral at Speyer, he secured the imperial succession of Henry IV by having him solemnly enthroned at Aachen. He still further strengthened the position of the boy-king by recommending him to the loyalty of the princes at the imperial Diet which he convened at Cologne early in December, and at the court Diet of Ratisbon on Christmas Day.

Leaving the regency of Germany in the hands of Agnes mother of Henry IV, Victor returned to Rome in February, 1057, where he presided over a council at the Lateran on 18 April. On 14 June he created Frederick, whom he had a month previously helped to the abbacy of Monte Cassino, Cardinal-priest of San Crisogono thus gaining the friendship of the powerful Duke Godfrey of Lorraine, a brother of the new cardinal. He then went to Tuscany, where he settled (23 July) a jurisdictional dispute between the palace of St. Donatus near Arezzo; five days later he died. His attendance wished to bring his remains to the cathedral at Eichstätt for burial. On their way thither, the remains were forcibly taken from them by some citizens fo Ravena and buried there in the Church of Santa Maria Rotonda, the burial place of Theodoric the Great.

Catholic Encyclopedia
Henry III d.; succeeded by Henry IV, till 1065 under the guardianship of Empress Agnes
Michael VI Bringas

Michael VI Bringas (Greek: Μιχαήλ ΣΤ΄ Βρίγγας, Mikhaēl VI Bringas), called Stratiotikos or Stratioticus ("the Military One", "the Warlike" or "the Bellicose") or Gerontas ("the Old"), was Byzantine emperor from 1056 to 1057.

  Apparently a relative of the powerful courtier Joseph Bringas (influential during the reign of Romanos II), Michael Bringas was an elderly patrician and a member of the court bureaucracy who had served as military finance minister (and hence the epithet Stratiotikos).

Michael Bringas was chosen by the empress Theodora as her successor shortly before her death in early September, 1056. The appointment had been secured through the influence of Leo Paraspondylos, Theodora's most trusted adviser.
Although Michael VI managed to survive a conspiracy organized by Theodosios, a nephew of the former emperor Constantine IX Monomachos, he was faced with the disaffection of the military aristocracy. His most costly error was to ignore the perceived rights of the general Nikephoros Bryennios, whom he restored to his former rank after his falling out with the Empress Theodora, but refused to restore his wealth and estates. After dismissing Bryennios's grievances in an audience, the emperor completely alienated the military, which remained powerful element of society. Michael compounded his error by rebuffing Bryennios after he had already ordered the restored general to lead a division of 3,000 men to reinforce the army in Cappadocia. From here Bryennios began plotting to overthrow Michael VI, and it was his capture that precipitated the military nobility to rally around Isaac I Komnenos, who was proclaimed emperor in Paphlagonia on June 8, 1057.

Although Michael VI immediately lost heart, the bureaucrats around him attempted to defend their position and assembled an army against the rebels. On August 26, 1057, the government's army was routed at the Battle of Petroe near Nicaea, and Isaac Komnenos advanced on Constantinople. Michael VI attempted to negotiate with the rebels through the famous courtier Michael Psellos, offering to adopt Isaac as his son and to grant him the title of kaisar (Caesar), but his proposals were publicly rejected. Privately Isaac showed himself more open to negotiation, and he was promised the status of co-emperor. However, during the course of these secret negotiations, a riot in favor of Isaac broke out in Constantinople. The patriarch Michael Keroularios convinced Michael VI to abdicate in Isaac's favor on August 31, 1057. The emperor duly followed the patriarch's advice and became a monk. He retired to his private home and died there by 1059.

Beginning of the democratic Pataria movement in Milan
Macbeth murdered by Malcolm III; succeeded by his stepson Lulach
Battle of Varaville

The Battle of Varaville was a battle fought in 1057 by William, Duke of Normandy against King Henry I of France and Count Geoffrey Martel of Anjou.

  In August 1057, King Henry and Count Geoffrey invaded Normandy on a campaign that was aimed at Bayeux and Caen. The size of their army and its composition are unknown. They first arrived in the Hiemois region of Normandy and began raiding and pillaging towards the two towns. Duke William, who appears to have been reluctant to oppose his overlord directly, gathered a large army at Falaise but took no other action besides keeping scouts out to report the invading force's movements. When the invaders reached a ford on the estuary of the Dives River near Varaville, they began to cross but when the tide came in, the process had only been half completed, leaving the army split in two. William seized the opportunity and attacked the half of the invading army that had not yet crossed. Later reports by chroniclers made the battle into a massacre, but contemporary writers barely noticed it. Modern historians have praised William's generalship during the battle, with David Bates noting the battle as an example of William's habit of surprising his enemies with unexpected moves.
The main effect was that the invaders retreated quickly from Normandy. The battle also marked the end of the last invasion of Normandy during Duke William's lifetime. After the retreat of Henry and Geoffrey, William was able to extend his influence outside his Norman lands, increasing his power in Maine in the years 1057 through 1060. Other results included Bishop Ivo of Sees switching from an Angevin to a Norman alliance.

In the next year, 1058, William invaded King Henry's lands and recaptured the castle at Tillières, which had been lost to the Normans during William's minority.


Alfgar (died c. 1062) was son of Leofric, Earl of Mercia, by his well-known wife Godgifu (Lady Godiva). He succeeded to his father's title and responsibilities on the latter's death in 1057.

Ælfgar gained from the exile of Earl Godwin of Wessex and his sons in 1051. He was given the Earldom of East Anglia, which had been that of Harold, son of Godwin. Earl Godwin and King Edward were reconciled the following year, so Harold was restored to his earldom—but not for long. At Easter 1053 Godwin died, so Harold became Earl of Wessex, and the earldom of East Anglia returned to Ælfgar.

Ælfgar seems to have learned from the tactics Godwin used to put pressure on King Edward. When he was himself exiled in 1055, he raised a fleet of 18 ships in Ireland and then turned to Wales, where King Gruffydd agreed to join forces with him against King Edward. Two miles from Hereford, on 24 October, they clashed with the army of the Earl of Herefordshire, Ralph the Timid. The Earl and his men eventually took flight, and Gruffydd and Ælfgar pursued them, killing and wounding as they went, and enacting savage reprisals on Hereford. They despoiled and burnt the town, killing many of its citizens. King Edward ordered an army mustered and put Earl Harold in charge of it. This was more formidable opposition, and Ælfgar and Gruffydd fled to South Wales. However the issue was resolved by diplomacy and Earl Ælfgar was reinstated.

Ælfgar is known to have had at least four children. One son, Burgheard, predeceased his father, expiring while returning from Rome early in 1061 and was buried at Reims. This led Ælfgar to give to Reims Abbey lands in Staffordshire and Shropshire, which became the endowment for Lapley Priory. He was survived by three children, two sons, Edwin, later Earl of Mercia, and Morcar, later Earl of Northumbria, and a daughter Ealdgyth, who was first married to Welsh king Gruffydd ap Llywelyn and later to Harold Godwinson, King of England.

Isaac I Komnenos

Isaac I Komnenos (or Comnenus) (Greek: Ισαάκιος A' Κομνηνός, Isaakios I Komnēnos) (c. 1007 – 1061) was Byzantine Emperor from 1057 to 1059, and the first reigning member of the Komnenos dynasty. His brief reign saw an attempt to restore the Byzantine Empire’s military capability and reputation.


Gold nomisma struck by Isaac. His martial posture, bearing a naked sword, is unique among Byzantine imperial coinage.
  Isaac was the son of Manuel Erotikos Komnenos, the strategos autokrator of the East under Emperor Basil II Manuel originated in Thrace and was possibly of Vlach ancestry, though other ethnic origins have been suggested. It is said that the family name was derived from the city of Komne, near Philippopolis in Thrace, where they were landowners, and that they were of Armenian ancestry from Paphlagonia, which is possibly supported by the use of the name Manuel instead of Emmanouel.
Manuel came to the notice of Basil II because of his defence, in 978, of Nicaea against the rebel Bardas Skleros. In recognition of Manuel's loyalty Basil gave him lands near Kastamuni in Paphlagonia.
On his deathbed in 1020 Manuel commended his two surviving sons Isaakios and Ioannes to the emperor's care. Basil had them carefully educated at the monastery of Stoudion, and afterwards advanced them to high official positions. He also had an older son, Nikephoros, who died in 1026, and a daughter, born in 1012 and married around 1031 to Michael Dokeianos, Catepan of Italy, deceased in 1050.

During the disturbed reigns of Basil's seven immediate successors, Isaac by his prudent conduct won the confidence of the army. From 1042 to 1057, he served as commander of the field army in Anatolia. In 1057, after being humiliated by the Emperor Michael VI, he rebelled in Paphlagonia, and joined with the nobles of the capital in a conspiracy against Michael VI. Proclaimed emperor by the army on June 8, 1057, he defeated an imperial army at the Battle of Petroe. A panicked Michael VI attempted to negotiate with the rebels through the famous courtier Michael Psellos, offering to adopt Isaac as his son and to grant him the title of kaisar (Caesar), but his proposals were publicly rejected. Privately Isaac showed himself more open to negotiation, and he was promised the status of co-emperor. However, during the course of these secret negotiations, a riot in favor of Isaac broke out in Constantinople. With Michael VI’s deposition, Patriarch Michael Keroularios crowned Isaac I emperor on September 1, 1057, taking much of the credit for Isaac's acceptance as monarch. His coronation marks the founding of the new dynasty of the Komnenoi.

The first care of the new emperor was to reward his noble partisans with appointments that removed them from Constantinople, and his next was to repair the depleted finances of the empire. He revoked numerous pensions and grants conferred by his predecessors upon idle courtiers, and, meeting the reproach of sacrilege by Michael Keroularios with a decree of exile in 1058, he appropriated a proportion of the revenues of the wealthy monasteries. Isaac's only military expedition was against King Andrew I of Hungary and the Pechenegs, who began to ravage the northern frontiers in 1059. Shortly after this successful campaign, he concluded peace with the Kingdom of Hungary and returned to Constantinople. Here he became very ill, and believed he was dying. He was already deeply shaken after narrowly avoiding being struck by lightning while leaning against a tree on campaign against the Pechenegs, and saw his illness as a sign of God's displeasure. This situation was exploited by the courtiers, led by Michael Psellos, who influenced Isaac to appoint as his successor Constantine Doukas, to the exclusion of his own brother John Komnenos. Isaac abdicated on November 22, 1059, against the wishes of his brother and of his empress Catherine of Bulgaria. Like Isaac, his wife and daughter entered a monastery.

Although he recovered, Isaac Komnenos did not resume the throne, but retired to the monastery of Stoudion and spent the remaining two years of his life as a monk, alternating menial offices with literary studies. His Scholia to the Iliad and other works on the Homeric poems are still extant. He died late in 1060 or early in 1061. Isaac's great aim was to restore the former strict organization of the government, and his reforms, though unpopular with the aristocracy and the clergy, and not understood by the people, certainly contributed to the continued survival of the Byzantine Empire.

Stephen X

Pope Stephen IX (c. 1020 – 29 March 1058) was Pope from 3 August 1057 to 29 March 1058.

  Born probably about the beginning of the eleventh century; died at Florence, 29 March, 1058. (Junian?) Frederick, destined to become Pope Stephen X, was the son of Gozelon, Duke of Lower Lorraine and of Junca, the daughter of Berengarius II, King of Italy. As he advanced in years he became as distinguished for character and learning as he was for his birth. It was seemingly whilst he was a canon of Liège that his cousin Leo IX met him and made him chancellor and librarian of the Roman Church (c. 1051). He accompanied Leo IX in his apostolic journeyings throughout Europe, and was sent by him on the famous embassy to Constantinople (1054) which terminated in the final separation of the Eastern and Western Churches. On his return from the East he was robbed by the Count of Teate, and, to avoid falling into the hands of the Emperor Henry III, the Black (who seems to have distrusted him as the brother of the rebellious Godfrey the Bearded, Duke of Lorraine), he became a monk at Monte Cassino (1055), and, after the death of the Emperor Henry, its abbot (1057).
He was made cardinal-priest of St. Chrysogonus by Victor II, and, on the latter's death, he was freely chosen his successor, and consecrated on the following day (3 August, 1057). As pope, he carried on the work of reformation which had been inaugurated by St. Leo IX. To show how much he was in earnest, he at once made cardinals of both that zealous champion of reform, St. Peter Damian, and the quondam monk Humbert, his own uncompromising companion on the embassy to Constantinople. He also made no little use of Cardinal Hildebrand (afterwards St. Gregory VII), the soul of the reforming party. He sent him to Milan to effect an improvement in the morals of its clergy with instructions to proceed to Germany and to induce the regent, the empress-mother Agnes, to accept his election which had been made without any reference to her. It was further arranged that Hildebrand was then to go on to France. Stephen was preparing to reopen negotiations with the Greek Church, and to try to stop the advance of the Normans in southern Italy, when he died, exhorting the cardinals to await the return of Hildebrand before electing his successor. He was buried in the Church of St. Reparata.

Catholic Encyclopedia
Ostromir Gospels

The Ostromir Gospels (Russian: Остромирово Евангелие) is the second oldest dated East Slavic book (it was considered the first before the Novgorod Codex was discovered in 2000). It was created by deacon Gregory for his patron, Posadnik Ostromir of Novgorod, in 1056 or 1057, probably as a gift for a monastery.


The Ostromir Gospels, written in the Church Slavonic with many vernacular words, is famous for its brilliant miniatures. The opening of the Gospel of Saint John, with his Evangelist portrait.
  The book
The book is a illuminated manuscript Gospel Book lectionary containing only feast-day and Sunday readings. It is written in a large uncial hand in two columns on 294 parchment sheets of the size 20 x 24 cm. Each page contains eighteen lines. The book is concluded by the scribe's notice about the circumstances of its creation. Three full page evangelist portraits survive, by two different artists, and many pages have decorative elements. The close resemblance between this and the equivalent pages in the Mstislav Lectionary suggests they are both based on a common prototype, now lost. The two artists who produced the evangelist portraits were both heavily influenced by Byzantine models, but the style of the portraits of Saints Mark and Luke seems to derive from Byzantine enamelled plaques rather than manuscripts.
More early Russian manuscripts have survived from Novgorod, which was never occupied by the Mongols, than any other centre.
Later history
It is thought that the book was taken from one of Novgorod monasteries to the personal collection of the Russian tsars in the Moscow Kremlin, where it was first registered in 1701. Peter the Great ordered it to be taken to St. Petersburg, where there was no mention of it until 1805, when it was discovered in the dressing room of the late Catherine the Great.

The Gospels were deposited in the Imperial Public Library in St Petersburg, where it remains. Alexander Vostokov was the first to study it in depth, demonstrating that the Church Slavonic of the manuscript reflects the Old East Slavic linguistic background of the scribe. The first facsimile edition was published under Vostokov's supervision in 1843.

In 1932, the gem-studded book-cover induced a plumber to break into a case, remove and steal the binding, and hide the parchments behind a bookcase. Although the book was quickly recovered, no replacement binding has been provided to date.

Jap. sculptor Jocho sets up his school

Jocho, (died 1057, Japan), great Japanese Buddhist sculptor who developed and perfected so-called kiyosehō, or joined-wood techniques.


Amida Nyorai, by Jōchō, Heian Period, 1053, wood covered with gold leaf. H.295cm. Phoenix Hall (Hōō-dō), Byōdō-in, Kyoto. Amida Nyorai is unfortunately the only authentic example of Jōchō's work still extant. The expression of the image, which is tender and merciful, differs from that of older statues in that the eyes are directed down toward the worshiper, establishing a direct and intimate psychological relationship between him and the Buddha.

The son (or pupil) of a famous sculptor, Kōshō, Jōchō chiefly worked for Fujiwara Michinaga, de facto ruler of Japan at that time, and his clan. In 1022 he was awarded the Buddhist title of hokkyō, an unprecedented honour for a Buddhist sculptor, for various sculptures he had contributed to the Hōjō Temple in Kyōto. Later he was rewarded by an even more exalted title for sculptures made for the Fujiwaras’ family temple, Kōfuku Temple, in Nara. He was also instrumental in improving the social position of Buddhist sculptors by organizing a guild, which came to be called “Bussho,” or the Buddhist sculpture studio. The Amida (Amitabha) of the Hōō-dō (Phoenix Hall), of the Byōdō Temple at Uji, near Kyōto, is his only extant work. Carved in 1053, it embodies tranquillity and gracefulness, effects achieved by Jōchō’s brilliant use of the joined-wood technique.

Malcolm III slays Lulach and becomes King of Scotland (-1093)

Lulach mac Gille Coemgáin (Modern Gaelic: Lughlagh mac Gille Chomghain, known in English simply as Lulach, and nicknamed Tairbith, "the Unfortunate" and Fatuus, "the Simple-minded" or "the Foolish"; before 1033 – 17 March 1058) was King of Scots between 15 August 1057 and 17 March 1058.


He appears to have been a weak king, as his nicknames suggest. He does, however, have the distinction of being the first king of Scotland of whom there are coronation details available. He was crowned in August 1057 at Scone.

Lulach was the son of Gruoch of Scotland, from her first marriage to Gille Coemgáin, Mormaer of Moray, and thus the stepson of Macbeth (Mac Bethad mac Findlaích). Following the death in battle of Macbeth in 1057, the king's followers placed Lulach on the throne. Lulach ruled only for a few months before being assassinated and usurped by Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada).

Lulach's son Máel Snechtai was Mormaer of Moray, while Óengus of Moray was the son of Lulach's daughter.

He is believed to be buried on Saint Columba's Holy Island of Iona in or around the monastery. The exact position of his grave is unknown.

Malcolm III
Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Dhonnchaidh, called in most Anglicised regnal lists Malcolm III, and in later centuries nicknamed Canmore, "Big Head",]either literally or in reference to his leadership, "Long-neck"; died 13 November 1093), was King of Scots.
It has also been argued recently that the real "Malcolm Canmore" was this Malcolm's great-grandson Malcolm IV, who is given this name in the contemporary notice of his death. He was the eldest son of King Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin). Malcolm's long reign, lasting 35 years, preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. He is the historical equivalent of the character of the same name in Shakespeare's Macbeth.

Malcolm's Kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern Scotland: the north and west of Scotland remained in Scandinavian, Norse-Gael and Gaelic control, and the areas under the control of the Kings of Scots would not advance much beyond the limits set by Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) until the 12th century. Malcolm III fought a succession of wars against the Kingdom of England, which may have had as their goal the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria. However, these wars did not result in any significant advances southwards. Malcolm's main achievement is to have continued a line which would rule Scotland for many years, although his role as "founder of a dynasty" has more to do with the propaganda of his youngest son David, and his descendants, than with any historical reality.

Malcolm's second wife, Saint Margaret of Scotland, was later beatified and is Scotland's only royal saint. However, Malcolm himself gained no reputation for piety. With the notable exception of Dunfermline Abbey he is not definitely associated with major religious establishments or ecclesiastical reforms.

  Malcolm's father Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin) became king in late 1034, on the death of Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda), Duncan's maternal grandfather and Malcolm's Great-grandfather. According to John of Fordun, whose account is the original source of part at least of William Shakespeare's Macbeth, Malcolm's mother was a niece of Siward, Earl of Northumbria, but an earlier king-list gives her the Gaelic name Suthen. Other sources claim that either a daughter or niece would have been too young to fit the timeline, thus the likely relative would have been Siward's own sister Sybil, which may have translated into Gaelic as Suthen.

Duncan's reign was not successful and he was killed by Macbeth (Mac Bethad mac Findlaích) on 15 August 1040. Although Shakespeare's Macbeth presents Malcolm as a grown man and his father as an old one, it appears that Duncan was still young in 1040, and Malcolm and his brother Donalbane (Domnall Bán) were children. Malcolm's family did attempt to overthrow Macbeth in 1045, but Malcolm's grandfather Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the attempt.

Soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for greater safety — exactly where is the subject of debate. According to one version, Malcolm (then aged about 9) was sent to England, and his younger brother Donalbane was sent to the Isles.


Based on Fordun's account, it was assumed that Malcolm passed most of Macbeth's seventeen year reign in the Kingdom of England at the court of Edward the Confessor.

According to an alternative version, Malcolm's mother took both sons into exile at the court of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney, an enemy of Macbeth's family, and perhaps Duncan's kinsman by marriage.

An English invasion in 1054, with Siward, Earl of Northumbria, in command, had as its goal the installation of one "Máel Coluim, son of the King of the Cumbrians". This Máel Coluim has traditionally been identified with the later Malcolm III. This interpretation derives from the Chronicle attributed to the 14th-century chronicler of Scotland, John of Fordun, as well as from earlier sources such as William of Malmesbury. The latter reported that Macbeth was killed in the battle by Siward, but it is known that Macbeth outlived Siward by two years. A. A. M. Duncan argued in 2002 that, using the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry as their source, later writers innocently misidentified "Máel Coluim" with the later Scottish king of the same name. Duncan's argument has been supported by several subsequent historians specialising in the era, such as Richard Oram, Dauvit Broun and Alex Woolf. It has also been suggested that Máel Coluim may have been a son of Owen the Bald, British king of Strathclyde perhaps by a daughter of Máel Coluim II, King of Scotland.

In 1057 various chroniclers report the death of Macbeth at Malcolm's hand, on 15 August 1057 at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach, who was crowned at Scone, probably on 8 September 1057. Lulach was killed by Malcolm, "by treachery", near Huntly on 23 April 1058. After this, Malcolm became king, perhaps being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only John of Fordun reports this.

Malcolm and Ingibiorg

If Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Malcolm's earliest actions as King may have been to travel south to the court of Edward the Confessor in 1059 to arrange a marriage with Edward's kinswoman Margaret, who had arrived in England two years before from Hungary. If he did visit the English court, he was the first reigning King of Scots to do so in more than eighty years. If a marriage agreement was made in 1059, however, it was not kept, and this may explain the Scots invasion of Northumbria in 1061 when Lindisfarne was plundered. Equally, Malcolm's raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed "Kingdom of the Cumbrians", reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054, which was under Malcolm's control by 1070.

The Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg, a daughter of Finn Arnesson. Although Ingibiorg is generally assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is possible that she died much earlier, around 1058. The Orkneyinga Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son, Duncan II (Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim), who was later king. Some Medieval commentators, following William of Malmesbury, claimed that Duncan was illegitimate, but this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's descendants, the Meic Uilleim. Malcolm's son Domnall, whose death is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Saga. He is assumed to have been born to Ingibiorg.

Malcolm's marriage to Ingibiorg secured him peace in the north and west. The Heimskringla tells that her father Finn had been an adviser to Harald Hardraade and, after falling out with Harald, was then made an Earl by Sweyn Estridsson, King of Denmark, which may have been another recommendation for the match. Malcolm enjoyed a peaceful relationship with the Earldom of Orkney, ruled jointly by his stepsons, Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson. The Orkneyinga Saga reports strife with Norway but this is probably misplaced as it associates this with Magnus Barefoot, who became king of Norway only in 1093, the year of Malcolm's death.


Máel Coluim and Margaret as depicted in a 16th century armorial.
Note the coats of arms both bear on their clothing — Malcolm wears the Lion of Scotland, which historically was not used until the time of his great-grandson William the Lion; Margaret wears the supposed arms of Edward the Confessor, her grand-uncle, although the arms were in fact concocted in the later Middle Ages.
  Malcolm and Margaret
Although he had given sanctuary to Tostig Godwinson when the Northumbrians drove him out, Malcolm was not directly involved in the ill-fated invasion of England by Harald Hardraade and Tostig in 1066, which ended in defeat and death at the battle of Stamford Bridge.

In 1068, he granted asylum to a group of English exiles fleeing from William of Normandy, among them Agatha, widow of Edward the Confessor's nephew Edward the Exile, and her children: Edgar Ætheling and his sisters Margaret and Cristina. They were accompanied by Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria. The exiles were disappointed, however, if they had expected immediate assistance from the Scots.

In 1069 the exiles returned to England, to join a spreading revolt in the north. Even though Gospatric and Siward's son Waltheof submitted by the end of the year, the arrival of a Danish army under Sweyn Estridsson seemed to ensure that William's position remained weak. Malcolm decided on war, and took his army south into Cumbria and across the Pennines, wasting Teesdale and Cleveland then marching north, loaded with loot, to Wearmouth. There Malcolm met Edgar and his family, who were invited to return with him, but did not.

As Sweyn had by now been bought off with a large Danegeld, Malcolm took his army home. In reprisal, William sent Gospatric to raid Scotland through Cumbria. In return, the Scots fleet raided the Northumbrian coast where Gospatric's possessions were concentrated. Late in the year, perhaps shipwrecked on their way to a European exile, Edgar and his family again arrived in Scotland, this time to remain. By the end of 1070, Malcolm had married Edgar's sister Margaret, the future Saint Margaret of Scotland.

The naming of their children represented a break with the traditional Scots Regal names such as Malcolm, Cináed and Áed.


The point of naming Margaret's sons, Edward after her father Edward the Exile, Edmund for her grandfather Edmund Ironside, Ethelred for her great-grandfather Ethelred the Unready and Edgar for her great-great-grandfather Edgar and her brother, briefly the elected king, Edgar Ætheling, was unlikely to be missed in England, where William of Normandy's grasp on power was far from secure. Whether the adoption of the classical Alexander for the future Alexander I of Scotland (either for Pope Alexander II or for Alexander the Great) and the biblical David for the future David I of Scotland represented a recognition that William of Normandy would not be easily removed, or was due to the repetition of Anglo-Saxon Royal name—another Edmund had preceded Edgar—is not known. Margaret also gave Malcolm two daughters, Edith, who married Henry I of England, and Mary, who married Eustace III of Boulogne.

In 1072, with the Harrying of the North completed and his position again secure, William of Normandy came north with an army and a fleet. Malcolm met William at Abernethy and, in the words of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle "became his man" and handed over his eldest son Duncan as a hostage and arranged peace between William and Edgar. Accepting the overlordship of the king of the English was no novelty, previous kings had done so without result. The same was true of Malcolm; his agreement with the English king was followed by further raids into Northumbria, which led to further trouble in the earldom and the killing of Bishop William Walcher at Gateshead. In 1080, William sent his son Robert Curthose north with an army while his brother Odo punished the Northumbrians. Malcolm again made peace, and this time kept it for over a decade.

Malcolm faced little recorded internal opposition, with the exception of Lulach's son Máel Snechtai. In an unusual entry, for the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains little on Scotland, it says that in 1078:

Malcholom [Máel Coluim] seized the mother of Mælslæhtan [Máel Snechtai] ... and all his treasures, and his cattle; and he himself escaped with difficulty.
Whatever provoked this strife, Máel Snechtai survived until 1085.

Malcolm and William Rufus
When William Rufus became king of England after his father's death, Malcolm did not intervene in the rebellions by supporters of Robert Curthose which followed. In 1091, however, William Rufus confiscated Edgar Ætheling's lands in England, and Edgar fled north to Scotland.
In May, Malcolm marched south, not to raid and take slaves and plunder, but to besiege Newcastle, built by Robert Curthose in 1080. This appears to have been an attempt to advance the frontier south from the River Tweed to the River Tees.

The threat was enough to bring the English king back from Normandy, where he had been fighting Robert Curthose. In September, learning of William Rufus's approaching army, Malcolm withdrew north and the English followed. Unlike in 1072, Malcolm was prepared to fight, but a peace was arranged by Edgar Ætheling and Robert Curthose whereby Malcolm again acknowledged the overlordship of the English king.

In 1092, the peace began to break down. Based on the idea that the Scots controlled much of modern Cumbria, it had been supposed that William Rufus's new castle at Carlisle and his settlement of English peasants in the surrounds was the cause.

  However, it is unlikely that Malcolm did control Cumbria, and the dispute instead concerned the estates granted to Malcolm by William Rufus's father in 1072 for his maintenance when visiting England.

Malcolm sent messengers to discuss the question and William Rufus agreed to a meeting. Malcolm travelled south to Gloucester, stopping at Wilton Abbey to visit his daughter Edith and sister-in-law Cristina. Malcolm arrived there on 24 August 1093 to find that William Rufus refused to negotiate, insisting that the dispute be judged by the English barons. This Malcolm refused to accept, and returned immediately to Scotland. It does not appear that William Rufus intended to provoke a war, but, as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports, war came:

For this reason therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and the King Malcolm returned to Scotland. And soon after he came home, he gathered his army, and came harrowing into England with more hostility than behoved him ...
Malcolm was accompanied by Edward, his eldest son by Margaret and probable heir-designate (or tánaiste), and by Edgar. Even by the standards of the time, the ravaging of Northumbria by the Scots was seen as harsh.

While marching north again, Malcolm was ambushed by Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria, whose lands he had devastated, near Alnwick on 13 November 1093. There he was killed by Arkil Morel, steward of Bamburgh Castle. The conflict became known as the Battle of Alnwick. Edward was mortally wounded in the same fight. Margaret, it is said, died soon after receiving the news of their deaths from Edgar. The Annals of Ulster say:

Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French i.e. in Inber Alda in England. His queen, Margaret, moreover, died of sorrow for him within nine days.
Malcolm's body was taken to Tynemouth Priory for burial. The king's body was sent north for reburial, in the reign of his son Alexander, at Dunfermline Abbey, or possibly Iona.

On 19 June 1250, following the canonisation of Malcolm's wife Margaret by Pope Innocent IV, Margaret's remains were disinterred and placed in a reliquary. Tradition has it that as the reliquary was carried to the high altar of Dunfermline Abbey, past Malcolm's grave, it became too heavy to move. As a result, Malcolm's remains were also disinterred, and buried next to Margaret beside the altar.

Boleslaw II

Bolesław II, byname Bolesław the Bold or Bolesław the Generous, Polish Bolesław Śmiały or Bolesław Szczodry (born 1039—died 1081), duke (1058–76) and later king (1076–79) of Poland.

  Bolesław assumed the rule of Poland on the death of his father, Casimir I the Restorer, in 1058. During the struggle between the German kings and the papacy, Bolesław was able to restore the international position of Poland. He helped Béla I to obtain the Hungarian crown (1060) against the Germans’ protégé and refused to pay the tribute for Silesia that his father had paid to the Czechs. In 1069 he intervened on behalf of a relative by marriage, Izyaslav, to give him the throne of the principality of Kiev. Bolesław and Pope Gregory VII had common interests both in Hungary and against the German king Henry IV, and Bolesław was recognized as king of Poland in the presence of papal legates in 1076. Catastrophe followed a second intervention in Kiev (1077): Polish nobles, with German and Czech support, rebelled, and among them was the bishop of Kraków, Stanislaus, who was accused of treason against the sovereign. Bolesław had him put to death on April 11, 1079.

The exact cause of the subsequent internal revolt is not clear, but the king had to flee from Poland, taking his son with him, and died in exile, traditionally at Ossiach in Carinthia or Wilten in Tirol.
Benedict X

Benedict (X), original name Giovanni Mincio, Latin Johannes Mincius (died after 1073, Sant’Agnese, Italy), antipope from April 1058 to January 1059.

His expulsion from the papal throne, on which he had been placed through the efforts of the powerful Tusculani family of Rome, was followed by a reform in the law governing papal elections. The new law, enacted in 1059, established an electoral body, which subsequently became the Sacred College of Cardinals, charged with sole responsibility for choosing the pope.

Benedict had previously been bishop of Velletri, near Rome, and seized the papacy upon the death of Pope Stephen IX (X). Expelled through the efforts of the reforming monk Hildebrand (later Pope St. Gregory VII) and the German court, he died a prisoner in the monastery of Sant’Agnese after 1073.

Al Gazali

al-Ghazālī, also spelled Al-ghazzālī, in full Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad Ibn Muḥammad Aṭ-ṭūsī Al-ghazālī (born 1058, Ṭūs, Iran—died Dec. 18, 1111, Ṭūs), Muslim theologian and mystic whose great work, Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm ad-dīn (“The Revival of the Religious Sciences”), made Ṣūfism (Islāmic mysticism) an acceptable part of orthodox Islām.

  Al-Ghazālī was born at Ṭūs (near Meshed in eastern Iran) and was educated there, then in Jorjān, and finally at Nishapur (Neyshābūr), where his teacher was al-Juwaynī, who earned the title of imām al-ḥaramayn (the imam of the two sacred cities of Mecca and Medina). After the latter’s death in 1085, al-Ghazālī was invited to go to the court of Niẓām al-Mulk, the powerful vizier of the Seljuq sultans. The vizier was so impressed by al-Ghazālī’s scholarship that in 1091 he appointed him chief professor in the Niẓāmīyah college in Baghdad. While lecturing to more than 300 students, al-Ghazālī was also mastering and criticizing the Neoplatonist philosophies of al-Fārābī and Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā). He passed through a spiritual crisis that rendered him physically incapable of lecturing for a time. In November 1095 he abandoned his career and left Baghdad on the pretext of going on pilgrimage to Mecca. Making arrangements for his family, he disposed of his wealth and adopted the life of a poor Ṣūfī, or mystic. After some time in Damascus and Jerusalem, with a visit to Mecca in November 1096, al-Ghazālī settled in Ṭūs, where Ṣūfī disciples joined him in a virtually monastic communal life. In 1106 he was persuaded to return to teaching at the Niẓāmīyah college at Nishapur. A consideration in this decision was that a “renewer” of the life of Islām was expected at the beginning of each century, and his friends argued that he was the “renewer” for the century beginning in September 1106.
He continued lecturing in Nishapur at least until 1110, when he returned to Ṭūs, where he died the following year.

More than 400 works are ascribed to al-Ghazālī, but he probably did not write nearly so many. Frequently the same work is found with different titles in different manuscripts, but many of the numerous manuscripts have not yet been carefully examined. Several works have also been falsely ascribed to him, and others are of doubtful authenticity. At least 50 genuine works are extant.

Al-Ghazālī’s greatest work is Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm ad-dīn. In 40 “books” he explained the doctrines and practices of Islām and showed how these can be made the basis of a profound devotional life, leading to the higher stages of Ṣūfism, or mysticism. The relation of mystical experience to other forms of cognition is discussed in Mishkāt al-anwār (The Niche for Lights). Al-Ghazālī’s abandonment of his career and adoption of a mystical, monastic life is defended in the autobiographical work al-Munqidh min aḍ-ḍalāl (The Deliverer from Error).

His philosophical studies began with treatises on logic and culminated in the Tahāfut (The Inconsistency—or Incoherence—of the Philosophers), in which he defended Islām against such philosophers as Avicenna who sought to demonstrate certain speculative views contrary to accepted Islāmic teaching. In preparation for this major treatise, he published an objective account of Maqāṣid al-falāsifah (The Aims of the Philosophers; i.e., their teachings). This book was influential in Europe and was one of the first to be translated from Arabic to Latin (12th century).

Most of his activity was in the field of jurisprudence and theology. Toward the end of his life he completed a work on general legal principles, al-Mustaṣfā (Choice Part, or Essentials). His compendium of standard theological doctrine (translated into Spanish), al-Iqtiṣād fī al-lʿtiqād (The Just Mean in Belief ), was probably written before he became a mystic, but there is nothing in the authentic writings to show that he rejected these doctrines, even though he came to hold that theology—the rational, systematic presentation of religious truths—was inferior to mystical experience. From a similar standpoint he wrote a polemical work against the militant sect of the Assassins (Ismāʿīlīyah), and he also wrote (if it is authentic) a criticism of Christianity, as well as a book of Counsel for Kings (Naṣīḥat al-mulūk).

Al-Ghazālī’s abandonment of a brilliant career as a professor in order to lead a kind of monastic life won him many followers and critics among his contemporaries. Western scholars have been so attracted by his account of his spiritual development that they have paid him far more attention than they have other equally important Muslim thinkers.

William Montgomery Watt

Encyclopædia Britannica

Parma Cathedral begun (-1074)
Parma Cathedral

Parma Cathedral (Duomo) is a cathedral church in Parma, Emilia-Romagna (Italy). It is an important Italian Romanesque cathedral: the dome, in particular, is decorated by a highly influential illusionistic fresco by Renaissance painter Antonio da Correggio.


Parma Cathedral
The construction was begun in 1059 by bishop Cadalo, later antipope with the name of Honorius II, and was consecrated by Paschal II in 1106. A basilica existed probably in the 6th century, but was later abandoned; another church had been consecrated in the rear part of the preceding one in the 9th century by the count-bishop Guibodo. The new church was heavily damaged by an earthquake in 1117 and had to be restored. Of the original building, remains can be seen in the presbytery, the transept, the choir and the apses, and in some sculpture fragments. The wide façade was completed in 1178: it has three loggia floors and three portals, whose doors were sculpted by Luchino Bianchino in 1494. Between the central and the right doors is the tomb of the mathematician Biagio Pelacani, who died in 1416.

The Gothic belfry was added later, in 1284-1294: a twin construction on the left side had been conceived, but it was never begun. Beside the Cathedral lies the octagonal Baptistry of Parma.

Parma Cathedral;
Illusionististic cupola fresco of the Assumption by Antonio da Correggio.


The interior has a Latin cross plan, with a nave and two aisles divided by pilasters. The presbytery and the transept are elevated, to allow space for the underlying crypt. The latter houses fragments of ancient mosaics which show the presence here of a cult temple from at least in the 3rd or 4th century AD. The side chapels were built to house the sepulchers of the noble families of Parma: two of them, the Valeri Chapel and the Commune Chapel, have maintained the original decoration from the 14th century.

Particularly noteworthy are the capitals, also in the exterior: many of them are characterized by rich decorations with leaves, mythological figures, scenes of war, as well as Biblical and Gospel scenes. The paintings, as revealed by a capital stripped of the 16th century gold painting, were originally polychrome.

In the right transept is the Deposition by Benedetto Antelami (1178). The cycle of frescoes in the nave and apse walls are by Lattanzio Gambara and Bernardino Gatti. Along the nave, in the lunnetes above the spans are monochrome frescoes of Old Testament stories, as well as event of the passion. This culminates in the apse cupola, frescoed with ‘’Christ, Mary, Saints, and Angels in Glory’’ (1538-1544) by Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli. The 15th century frescoes in the Valeri Chapel are attributed to the studio of Bertolino de'Grossi. Those in the Capella del Comune, presumably by the same hands, were painted after the plague of 1410-11, and dedicated to Saint Sebastian. The Crypt has a monument to Saint Bernardo di Uberti, bishop of Parma 1106-1133, patron of the diocese. The monument, executed in the 1544 by Prospero Clementi and Girolamo Clementi on design of Mazzola Bèdoli.

The sacristy contains works attributed to Luchino Bianchini (1491). There are four reliefs by Benedetto Antelami, from 1178. The portal also has two carvings by Luchino Bianchino. Two great marble lions support the archivolt columns, and were carved in the 1281 by Giambono da Bissone. The Ravacaldi chapel has frescoes attriguted to the studio of Bertolino de’Grassi.

The main feature of the interior is the fresco of Assumption of the Virgin decorating the dome, executed by Correggio in 1526-1530.

Treaty of Melfi: Robert Guiscard and Richard of Aversa, Prince of Capua, become papal vassals
The Treaty of Melfi was signed in August of 1059 between Pope Nicholas II and the Normans. Based on the terms of the accord, the Pope recognized Norman influence over southern Italy. Moreover, the Pope recognized Robert Guiscard as the Duke of Apulia, the Duke of Calabria, and the Count of Sicily.
Constantine X

Constantine X Ducas, Ducas also spelled Doukas (born c. 1006—died May 22/23, 1067), Byzantine emperor from 1059 to 1067, successor to Isaac I Comnenus.

Constantine’s accession was a triumph for the civil aristocracy and was unfortunate in that he proved an incapable emperor. He reduced the army and neglected the frontier defenses at a time when the Seljuq Turks were pressing into the eastern provinces; consequently, the sultan Alp Arslan overran Armenia (1064–65) and attacked Caesarea (1067). In 1064 the Hungarians occupied Belgrade, and the Pechenegs (Patzinaks) and Uzes (Kumans) crossed the Danube River and ravaged the Balkan provinces, penetrating into Greece. In Italy the Normans were rapidly conquering the last remnants of the Byzantine possessions.
Nicholas II

Nicholas was born at Chevron, in what is now Savoy; elected at Siena, December, 1058; died at Florence 19 or 27 July, 1061.

  Like his predecessor, Stephen X, he was canon at Liège. In 1046 he became Bishop of Florence, where he restored the canonical life among the clergy of numerous churches. As soon as the news of the death of Stephen X at Florence reached Rome (4 April, 1058). the Tusculan party appointed a successor in the person of John Mincius, Bishop of Velletri, under the name of Benedict X. His elevation, due to violence and corruption, was contrary to the specific orders of Stephen X that, at his death, no choice of a successor was to be made until Hildebrand's return from Germany. Several cardinals protested against the irregular proceedings, but they were compelled to flee from Rome. Hildebrand was returning from his mission when the news of these events reached him.
He interrupted his journey at Florence, and after agreeing with Duke Godfrey of Lorraine-Tuscany upon Bishop Gerhard for elevation to the papacy, he won over part of the Roman population to the support of his candidate. An embassy dispatched to the imperial court secured the confirmation of the choice by the Empress Agnes. At Hildebrand's invitation, the cardinals met in December, 1058, at Siena and elected Gerhard who assumed the name of Nicholas II. On his way to Rome the new pope held at Sutri a well-attended synod at which, in the presence of Duke Godfrey and the imperial chancellor, Guibert of Parma, he pronounced deposition against Benedict X. The latter was driven from the city in January, 1059, and the solemn coronation of Nicholas took place on the twenty-fourth of the same month. A cultured and stainless man, the new pontiff had about him capable advisers, but to meet the danger still threatening from Benedict X and his armed supporters, Nicholas empowered Hildebrand to enter into negotiations with the Normans of southern Italy. The papal envoy recognized Count Richard of Aversa as Prince of Capua and received in return Norman troops which enabled the papacy to carry on hostilities against Benedict in the Campagna. This campaign did not result in the decisive overthrow of the opposition party, but it enabled Nicholas to undertake in the early part of 1059 a pastoral visitation to Spoleto, Farfa, and Osimo. During this journey he raised Abbot Desiderius of Monte Cassino to the dignity of cardinal-priest and appointed him legate to Campania, Benevento, Apulia, and Calabria. Early in his pontificate he had sent St. Peter Damiani and Bishop Anselm of Lucca as his legates to Milan, where a married and simoniacal clergy had recently given rise to a reform-party known as the "Pataria". A synod for the restoration of ecclesiastical discipline was held under the presidency of these envoys who, in spite of a tumultuous uprising which endangered their lives, succeeded in obtaining from Archbishop Guido and the Milanese clergy a solemn repudiation of simony and concubinage.

One of the most pressing needs of the time was the reform of papal elections. It was right that they should be freed from the nefarious influence of the Roman factions and the secular control of the emperor, hitherto less disastrous but always objectionable. To this end Nicholas II held in the Lateran at Easter, 1059 a synod attended by one hundred and thirteen bishops and famous for its law concerning papal elections. Efforts to determine the authentic text of this decree caused considerable controversy in the nineteenth century. That the discussions did not result in a consensus of opinion on the matter need not surprise, if it be remembered that thirty years after the publication of the decree complaints were heard regarding the divergency in the text. We possess today a papal and an imperial recension and the sense of the law may be stated substantially as follows: —

(1) At the death of the pope, the cardinal-bishops are to confer among themselves concerning a candidate, and, after they have agreed upon a name, they and the other cardinals are to proceed to the election. The remainder of the clergy and the laity enjoy the right of acclaiming their choice.

(2) A member of the Roman clergy is to be chosen, except that where a qualified candidate cannot be found in the Roman Church, an ecclesiastic from another diocese may be elected.

(3) The election is to be held at Rome, except that when a free choice is impossible there, it may take place elsewhere.

(4) If war or other circumstances prevent the solemn enthronization of the new pope in St. Peter's Chair, he shall nevertheless enjoy the exercise of full Apostolic authority.

(5) Due regard is to be had for the right of confirmation or recognition conceded to King Henry, and the same deference is to be shown to his successors, who have been granted personally a like privilege.

These stipulations constituted indeed a new law, but they were also intended as an implicit approbation of the procedure followed at the election of Nicholas II. As to the imperial right of confirmation, it became a mere personal privilege granted by the Roman See. The same synod prohibited simoniacal ordinations, lay investiture, and assistance at the Mass of a priest living in notorious concubinage.

The rules governing the life of canons and nuns which were published at the diet of Aix-la-Chapelle (817) were abolished, because they allowed private property and such abundant food that, as the bishops indignantly exclaimed, they were adapted to sailors and intemperate matrons rather than to clerics and nuns. Berengarius of Tours, whose views opposed to the doctrine of Christ's real presence in the Eucharist, had repeatedly been condemned, also appeared at the Council and was compelled to sign a formula of abjuration.

At the end of June, 1059, Nicholas proceeded to Monte Cassino and thence to Melfi, the capital of Norman Apulia, where he held an important synod and concluded the famous alliance with the Normans (July-August, 1059). Duke Robert Guiscard was invested with the sovereignty of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily in case he should reconquer it from the Saracens; he bound himself, in return, to pay an annual tribute, to hold his lands as the pope's vassal, and to protect the Roman See, its possessions, and the freedom of papal elections. A similar agreement was concluded with Prince Richard of Capua.

  After holding a synod at Benevento Nicholas returned to Rome with a Norman army which reconquered Præneste, Tusculum, and Numentanum for the Holy See and forced Benedict X to capitulate at Galeria (autumn of 1059). Hildebrand, the soul of the pontificate, was now created archdeacon. In order to secure the general acceptance of the laws enacted at the synod of 1059, Cardinal Stephen, in the latter part of that year, was sent to France where he presided over the synods of Vienne (31 January, 1060) and Tours (17 February, 1060). The decree which introduced a new method of papal election had caused great dissatisfaction in Germany, because it reduced the imperial right of confirmation to the precarious condition of a personal privilege granted at will; but, assured of Norman protection, Nicholas could fearlessly renew the decree at the Lateran synod held in 1060. After this council Cardinal Stephen, who had accomplished his mission to France, appeared as papal legate in Germany. For five days he vainly solicited an audience at court and then returned to Rome. His fruitless mission was followed by a German synod which annulled all the ordinances of Nicholas II and pronounced his deposition. The pope's answer was a repetition of the decree concerning elections at the synod of 1061, at which the condemnation of simony and concubinage among the clergy was likewise renewed. He lies buried in the church of St. Reparata at Florence of which city he had remained bishop even after his elevation to the papal throne. His pontificate, though of short duration, was marked by events fraught with momentous and far-reaching consequences.

Catholic Encyclopedia

Papal decree establishing papal elections by cardinals only
Work begins on Bonn Cathedral
Bonn Minster

The Bonn Minster (German: Das Bonner Münster) is one of Germany's oldest churches, having been built between the 11th and 13th centuries. At one point the church served as the cathedral for the Archbishopric of Cologne. However, the Minster is now a Papal basilica.


Bonn Minster
Originally the Minster was the collegiate church of Saints Cassius and Florentius, who were Roman legionaries of the legendary all-Christian Theban Legion. The legion's garrison, according to legend, was in the Egyptian town of Thebes. Roman Emperor Maximianus Herculius ordered the legion to march to Gaul and assist in subduing rebels from Burgundy. At some point during their march, the legion refused to follow the emperor's orders either to kill fellow Christians or to worship Maximianus Herculius as a god. As a result, a large number of legionaries were martyred in Agaunum, now named Saint Maurice-en-Valais after Saint Maurice. According to legend, Saints Cassius and Florentius, who were under the command of Saint Gereon, were beheaded for their religious beliefs at the present location of the Bonn Minster.
Henry I king of France  d.; succeded by Philip I (-1108)
Philip I

Philip I (23 May 1052 – 29 July 1108), called the Amorous, was King of the Franks from 1060 to his death. His reign, like that of most of the early Direct Capetians, was extraordinarily long for the time. The monarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reign of his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin and Bourges.

  Philip was the son of Henry I and Anne of Kiev. Unusually at the time for Western Europe, his name was of Greek origin, being bestowed upon him by his mother. Although he was crowned king at the age of seven, until age fourteen (1066) his mother acted as regent, the first queen of France ever to do so. Her co-regent was Baldwin V of Flanders.

Philip first married Bertha, daughter of Floris I, Count of Holland, in 1072. Although the marriage produced the necessary heir, Philip fell in love with Bertrade de Montfort, the wife of Count Fulk IV of Anjou. He repudiated Bertha (claiming she was too fat) and married Bertrade on 15 May 1092. In 1094, he was excommunicated by Hugh, Archbishop of Lyon, for the first time; after a long silence, Pope Urban II repeated the excommunication at the Council of Clermont in November 1095. Several times the ban was lifted as Philip promised to part with Bertrade, but he always returned to her, and after 1104, the ban was not repeated. In France, the king was opposed by Bishop Ivo of Chartres, a famous jurist.

Philip appointed Alberic first Constable of France in 1060. A great part of his reign, like his father's, was spent putting down revolts by his power-hungry vassals. In 1077, he made peace with William the Conqueror, who gave up attempting the conquest of Brittany. In 1082, Philip I expanded his demesne with the annexation of the Vexin. Then in 1100, he took control of Bourges.

It was at the aforementioned Council of Clermont that the First Crusade was launched. Philip at first did not personally support it because of his conflict with Urban II. Philip's brother Hugh of Vermandois, however, was a major participant.

“ …Philip died in the castle of Melun and was buried per request at the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire – and not in St Denis among his forefathers. He was succeeded by his son, Louis VI, whose succession was, however, not uncontested.”

According to Abbot Suger:

“ … King Philip daily grew feebler. For after he had abducted the Countess of Anjou, he could achieve nothing worthy of the royal dignity; consumed by desire for the lady he had seized, he gave himself up entirely to the satisfaction of his passion. So he lost interest in the affairs of state and, relaxing too much, took no care for his body, well-made and handsome though it was. The only thing that maintained the strength of the state was the fear and love felt for his son and successor. When he was almost sixty, he ceased to be king, breathing his last breath at the castle of Melun-sur-Seine, in the presence of the [future king] Louis...

They carried the body in a great procession to the noble monastery of St-Benoît-sur-Loire, where King Philip wished to be buried; there are those who say they heard from his own mouth that he deliberately chose not to be buried among his royal ancestors in the church of St. Denis because he had not treated that church as well as they had, and because among so many noble kings his own tomb would not have counted for much.”


Philip, Bertha and their two eldest children Constance and Louis
Bela I

Béla I, (born c. 1020—died September 1063), king of Hungary (1060–63) who fought a successful war against the Holy Roman emperor Henry III to defend his country’s independence.

  His father, Prince Vazul (also called Basil or Vászoly), was a nephew of King Stephen I. On the death of his son Imre, Stephen declared not Vazul but another nephew, the Venetian Peter Orseolo, to be his successor. Vazul rose in revolt, and Stephen had him blinded in 1031.

Vazul’s three sons fled, first to the Czech lands and then to Poland, where Béla was baptized. After deposing and executing Peter in 1046, the Hungarian nobles called back Vazul’s sons, and Andrew (Endre) took the throne. He made Béla duke of one-third of the realm and also heir to the throne.

While Béla was away on various military campaigns, Andrew had his four-year-old son Salamon named heir. This broke the Hungarian custom of seniorate, by which the heir was the eldest brother or nephew within the extended family. Béla raised an army in Poland and led it back to Hungary in 1060. Andrew died in this internecine struggle. Béla was crowned king in Székesfehérvár. It was during his reign that János, son of the tribal chief Vata, led the last pagan rebellion in Hungary, which Béla crushed in 1061.

Béla was preparing for a military campaign against emperor Henry IV, who supported Salamon’s claim to the throne, when he died as a result of injuries that he sustained when the wooden structure of his throne collapsed.

Daphni Monastery
  Dafní or Daphní (Greek Δαφνί; Katharevousa Greek Δάφνιον, Dáfnion or Dáphnion) is an 11th-century Byzantine monastery 11 km north-west of downtown Athens in Chaidari, south of Athinon Avenue (GR-8A).

It is situated near the forest of the same name, on the Sacred Way that led to Eleusis. The forest covers about 15 to 20 km².

The Daphnion was founded about the turn of the 6th century, Christianizing the site of the Sanctuary of Apollo Daphnaios that had been desecrated by the Goths in 395, and reusing the Ionic columns of the ancient temple of Apollo in its portico; only one remains, the others having been removed to London by Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin.

The principal church (catholikon), a fine monument of the 11th-century Byzantine art, is a cross-in-square church of the octagonal type surmounted by a broad and high dome. The church houses the best preserved complex of mosaics from the early Comnenian period (ca. 1100) when an austere and hieratic manner typical for the Macedonian epoch and represented by the famous Christ Pantocrator image inside the dome, was metamorphosing into a more intimate and delicate style, of which The Angel before St Joachim — with its pastoral backdrop, harmonious gestures and pensive lyricism — is considered a superb example.
Interior of the monastery church at Daphne Greece, 11th century, crowned with a Byzantine dome mosaic of Christ Pantocrator;
Byzantine Mosaic (11th century) of Christ Pantocrator, Daphni, Greece

According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, "the ensemble represents a visualization of the Christian cosmos, its effect created by an intricately conceived interplay of pictures and architecture. Space in fact fuses the decoration into one giant image, in which the ruler, hailed by the prophets surrounding him, presides in his sphere above the host of saints that people the lower part of the room".

After the church was sacked by the Crusaders in 1205, Otho de la Roche, Duke of Athens, gave it to the Cistercian Abbey of Bellevaux. The French monks had the exonarthex reconstructed, built a wall around the monastery and effected numerous other changes until the Ottomans expelled them and returned the monastery to an Orthodox community in 1458. Gradually, the impoverished cloister fell into disrepair. The monastery was disbanded by Ottoman authorities in 1821 but restoration work did not commence until 1888. It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1990. Heavily damaged by the 1999 Athens earthquake, Daphni Monastery is currently closed to the public for restoration.


A mosaic from the monastery, depicting the bathing of new-born Christ.

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